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Lecture 3

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 316
Tammy Mc Mullan

May 20/11 – Lecture 3 – BISC 316 Vertebrate Biology 7. Class Reptilia - first vertebrates well adapted to land. - amniotic egg with a shell (with extraembryonic membranes = membranes outside embryo). - lungs for respiration - limbs adapted for terrestial locomotion - heart - 2 atria, ventricles are partially or fully divided - 3/4 chambers - first group to have claws - heavily keratinized scales -Living reptiles - alligators and crocodiles -turtles and tortoises -lizards, snakes and tuatara 8. Class Aves - endothermic - regulate own body temp within a narrow range - feathers for thermal regulation and streamlining - oviparous (egg laying) - forelimbs modified to wings - other flight modification - loss of teeth (except for embryo and some parrots) - loss of right ovary - light weight bones - no bladder - 4 chambered heart 9. Class Mammalia - hair and mammary lands - endothermic - viviparous (live bearing) - except monotremes (platypus) - teeth in sockets - lower jaw as single bone (dentary) - other jaw bones lost or moved into middle ear (definitely feature of being a mammal) - 4 chambered heart - muscular diaphragm: separates abdominal and thoracic cavity Vertebrate species diversity - Fishes (extant) : 28,040 species - Birds : 9,100 - Amphibians : 5,500 - Mammals : 4,800 - Reptiles : 8,073 Earth Climates - climate determined by the interaction of: -solar radiation -temp -precip -wind - major in
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