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BISC 316 Lecture Notes - Amniote, Thoracic Cavity, Mandible

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 316
Tammy Mc Mullan

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May 20/11 – Lecture 3 – BISC 316 Vertebrate Biology
7. Class Reptilia - first vertebrates well adapted to land.
- amniotic egg with a shell (with extraembryonic membranes = membranes outside
- lungs for respiration
- limbs adapted for terrestial locomotion
- heart - 2 atria, ventricles are partially or fully divided - 3/4 chambers
- first group to have claws
- heavily keratinized scales
-Living reptiles
- alligators and crocodiles
-turtles and tortoises
-lizards, snakes and tuatara
8. Class Aves
- endothermic - regulate own body temp within a narrow range
- feathers for thermal regulation and streamlining
- oviparous (egg laying)
- forelimbs modified to wings
- other flight modification
- loss of teeth (except for embryo and some parrots)
- loss of right ovary
- light weight bones
- no bladder
- 4 chambered heart
9. Class Mammalia
- hair and mammary lands
- endothermic
- viviparous (live bearing) - except monotremes (platypus)
- teeth in sockets
- lower jaw as single bone (dentary)
- other jaw bones lost or moved into middle ear (definitely feature of being
a mammal)
- 4 chambered heart
- muscular diaphragm: separates abdominal and thoracic cavity
Vertebrate species diversity
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