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KIN 105-Unit 1 Objectives

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 105
Ryan Dill

KIN105: Unit 1 1. Define the term “organ system”. Describe three of the eleven organ systems in the body by describing their main function and the organs that they consist of. (4 marks) >Organ System: a group of organs classified as a unit b/c of a common function or set of functions. >>Skeletal System: provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints. >>Muscular System: produces movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons. >>Respiratory System: Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH. Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages. 2. Describe the concept of homeostasis. Why is it important? What type of feedback is utilized to maintain homeostasis? (3 marks) >Homeostasis: the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body. Most body cells depend on the maintenance of the cells’ fluid environment within a narrow range of conditions, including temperature, volume, and chemical content. Negative feedback helps maintain homeostasis. 3. Define negative feedback and positive feedback. Describe an example of each, to clarify the meaning of these physiological concepts. (3 marks) >Negative Feedback: mechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set point is resisted or negated; returns a parameter to its normal range and thereby maintains homeostasis. >ex: blood pressure control; 3 components: receptor that monitors the value of a variable, a control centre that establishes the set point around which the variable is maintained, and an effector that changes the variable. Receptors can detect a change in blood pressure and send the information to the control center in the brain. The control center causes the heart rate to increase/decrease and the blood vessels to dilate/constrict in order to have the blood pressure maintained in a normal range. >Positive Feedback: mechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set point is made greater. >ex: inadequate delivery of blood to cardiac muscle. Contraction of cardiac muscle generates blood pressure and moves blood through the blood vessels to the tissues. In effect, the heart pumps blood to itself. Following extreme blood loss, blood pressure decreases to the point that the delivery of blood to cardiac muscle is inadequate. Cardiac muscle homeostasis is disrupted and the heart pumps less blood, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure, and continues to decrease until the heart stops beating and death results. 4. The human body consists of many different types of elements. Interactions among these elements allow the formation of ions and molecules that are essential for the physiological function of the human body. Describe the terms “ion” and “molecule” and provide two examples of each. (4 marks) >Ion: atom or group of atoms carrying an electrical charge because of a loss or gain of one or more electrons. >ex: Sodium (Na) atom >Molecule: two or more atoms chemically combined to form a structure that behaves as an independent unit >ex: covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms forming a hydrogen molecule 5. Describe the three classifications of chemical reactions. Include a specific example of each type. (6 marks) >Synthesis Reactions: when two or more reactants combine to form a larger, more complex product >ex: A + B --> AB >Decomposition Reactions: when reactants are broken down into smaller, less complex products. (Reverse of a Synthesis Reaction) >ex: AB --> A + B >Exchange Reactions: is a combination of a decomposition and synthesis reaction >ex: AB + CD --> AC + BD 6. a. Maintaining a constant level of hydrogen ions in body fluids is important for the nervous system to function properly. The reversible reaction involving carbon dioxide and water plays an important role in maintaining this balance. Define the terms “reversible reaction” and “equilibrium” (2 marks). >Reversible Reaction
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