BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Short-Chain Fatty Acid, Reactive Hypoglycemia, Flour

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LECTURE 4 CARBS (SUGARS, STARCHES, FIBRE)
- Unrefined (whole) carbs
o Natural w/ minimal processing (ex. whole grain, whole wheat, whole foods)
- Refined carbs
o Processed; portion of grain removed
- Enriched
o Types of fortification which adds back some (NOT ALL) nutrients lost in
processing
Whole Grains
- Unrefined carbs; include entire grain kernel
o Contains bran (high in fibre, vit./minerals; outside layer), endosperm (high in
starch, protein, vit./minerals; inside), germ (high in fat and vit. E; middle)
- White flour
o Germ and bran removed
Types of Carbohydrates
- Sugars, starches, fibres made of 1+ sugar units
- Glucose = main sugar (in blood)
o Main sugar eaten
- Galactose (ex. milk)
- Fructose (found in fruits)
- Three types of sugars
o Monosaccharides
o Disaccharides
o Polysaccharides
- Added sugar
o No benefits/nutritional value
o Lack nutrient density (ex. fibre, micronutrients, phytochemicals)
o Empty calories
o Increased diseases
- “—ose” suffix for sugar
Types of Complex Carbs
- polysaccharides
o typically not sweet-tasting
o fibre can’t be broken from human enzymes, thus passes thru digestive tract
- Starch
o High doses not recommended
- Fibre
o Glucose molecules can’t be broken down w/ human body enzyme
o Soluble fibre: CAN get broken down a little bit by bacteria in large intestine, to
form short chain fatty acids
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