BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Vasopressin, Cramp, Phytic Acid

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LECTURE 8 WATER AND MINERALS
- 60% body weight = water
- Cells, 2/3rd inside water; 1/3rd outside water
- Water inside/outside cell space depends on:
o Solute concentration (proteins, sodium, potassium): osmosis moves water in/out
of cells, response to dissolved substances in/out of cell, to achieve proper solute
concentrations
o Blood pressure: hi forces water out of blood; low/differences in solute
concentration draws water in by osmosis
- Hua ody’s do’t store ater; ater loss = ater gai
Water, Blood Volume, and Blood Pressure
- Adequate water levels maintain blood volume > maintains blood pressure
- Constriction of blood vessels and heart rate > maintain blood pressure
- Kidneys > maintain blood pressure
- Good blood pressure = good nutrient delivery
- Water balance regulated by three hormones
o Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
o Angiotensin II
o Aldosterone
Water Functions
- Solvent
o Makes up blood
o Environment for chem reactions
- Metabolism and transport
- Protection
o Lubrication, tears
- Hydrolysis/dehydration reactions
- Regulate body temp
o “eat eaporates fro ski, losig heat; ools ski ad lood at ski’s surfae
Dehydration
- Deficiency symptoms emerge more rapidly than any other nutrient
- Deficiency in water > deficiency in electrolytes
- Dehydration = reduced blood volume, impaired nutrient delivery, waste removal
- Early symptoms:
o Thirst, headaches, fatigue, appetite loss, dry eyes/mouth, dark urine
- Late symptoms:
o Nausea, lack concentration, confusion, disorientation, collapse
Water Intoxication
- Hyponatremia: too much water, not enough sodium in body; drop sodium concentration
o Water moves into tissues > swelling
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o Disorientation, convulsions, nausea, muscle cramps, slurred speech, confusion
- Rare
Meeting Water Needs
- Depends on activities, temperatures, diet
- Low calorie diets increase water needs; more needed to excrete wastes from fat/protein
metabolism
- High fibre, high salt diets increase water needs
- Caffeine and alcohol = diuretics; impair antidiuretic hormones (regulates water balance),
increasing urination
Minerals
*FOR EXAM, KNOW 2 FUNCTIONS, 1 SYMPTOM OF DEFICIENCY, 1 SYMPTOM OF TOXICITY, 2
SOURCES (SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, MAGNESIUM, IRON, ZINC, IODINE,
FLUROIDE)
- Inorganic found in periodic table
- Present naturally in foods
- Added from soil/food processing
- Major minerals: need >100mg/d
- Trace minerals: need <100mg/d
- Grain products: sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc
- Veg/fruits: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron
- Milk/alt: potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iodine
- Meat/alt: potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride
Mineral Bioavailability
- Depends on source
- What else eaten at same time
- Preparation
- Individual
- Minerals easier to absorb from animals than plants
o Plants may contain oxalates, phytates, tannins, and fibre bind minerals in GI
tract, reduce absorption
Oxalates, Tannins, Phytates
- Compounds which interfere w/ mineral absorption
- Oxalates
o In spinach, beets, chocolate
o Prevent calcium/iron absorption
- Tannins
o In tea, red wine, some grains
o Prevent iron absorption
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