BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Leptin, Neuropeptide Y, Peptide Yy

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LECTURE 9 ENERGY BALANCE AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
Problems with Excess Fat
- Asthma, breaking problems; sleep apnea
- Type 2 diabetes
- Cardiovascular diseases (high blood lipids, hypertension, stroke)
- Cancers
- Arthritis
What is Healthy Weight?
- Weight which minimizes health risks
- Body Mass Index (but not always accurate)
o <18.5 = underweight
o 18.5-25 = healthy
o 25+ = over
o 30+ = obese
- Most important to have lean body mass (muscle, bone, internal organs) and min/low
levels of body fat (body composition)
Methods for Determining Body Composition
- Skinfold thickness
- Underwater weighing
- Air displacement
- Bioelectrical impedance
- Dual Energy X-ray (DXA)
Visceral vs. Subcutaneous Fat
- Visceral: around organs
o Higher health risks
o BMI, waist circumference estimate visceral fat
BMI = obese AND WC > 102cm (M) or 88cm (F) increase health risk
- Subcutaneous: under skin
Energy Balance
- For perso’s eight to reai sae, eergy i MU“T EQUAL eergy out EER
o Energy in comes from calories:
Fat (9 kcal/g), carbs (4 kcal/g), protein (4 kcal/g), alcohol (7 kcal/g)
o Energy out (EER)
Basal metabolic rate (60-75%)
Thermic effect of food (10%)
Physical activity (15-30%) MOST CONTROL YOU HAVE
Basal Metabolic Rate
- Largest energy expenditure (60-75%)
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