BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Corn Starch, Corn Syrup, Resistant Starch

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Published on 27 Jul 2012
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course
BPK 110
Professor
Chapter 4 Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates: organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio
of CH(2)O
Monosaccharide’s: any sugars that are not broken down during digestion and have the
general formula C(3-7)H(2(3-7))O(3-7). Common monosaccharide’s > glucose, fructose, and
galactose all have six carbon atoms C(6)
Disaccharides: carbs composed of 2 monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bond.
Common disaccharides > sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Glucose: present in blood, component of disaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose)
Fructose: present in honey and fruits, added to foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup
“fruit sugar”
Galactose: converted into glucose for the body, in foods and living systems, usually joined
with other monosaccharides
Pentoses: sugar molecules containing 5 carbon atoms
Sugar alcohols: compounds formed from monosaccharides by replacing a hydrogen atom
with a hydroxyl group (-OH) used for nutritive sweeteners , also called “polyols”
Sucrose: common table sugar, purified from sugar beets or sugar cane, one molecule of
glucose and one molecule fructose
Lactose: disaccharide composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule galactose,
“milk sugar”
Maltose: a disaccharide of two glucose molecules “malt sugars”. Formed whenever long
molecules of starch breakdown.
Complex carbs: chains of more than 2 sugar molecules
Oligosaccharides: short carb chains of 3-10 sugar molecules.
o Ie: dried beans, peas, and lentils
o Most common: raffinose and stachyose
Polysaccharides: long carb chains of monosacchrides
Starch: plants store energy as starch for use during growth and reproduction
o Grains, legumes, tubers
o Starch takes 2 main forms in plants
Amylose: long unbranched chains of glucose molecules (ie: wheat flour)
Amylopectin: branched chains of glucose molecules (ie: corn startch)
The proportion affects its functional properties (eg: corn starch thickens)
Resistant starch: a starch not digested some legumes contain this
Glycogen: “animal starch” storage form of carbs in most animals, highly branched
polysaccharide composed of multiple glucose units. Skeletal muscles (muscular activity) and
liver (regulate blood glucose levels) are the major sites for glycogen storage
Dietary fiber: consists of nondigestible carbs and lignins that are intact and intrinsic in
plants
o All types of plant foods: fruits, veggies, legumes and whole grains
o Contain staches not digested in SI (cellulose, hemicellulose) oligosaccharides too.
Functional fiber: isolated nondigestuable carbs that have beneficial physiological effects in
humans
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Document Summary

Carbohydrates: organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio of ch(2)o. Monosaccharide"s: any sugars that are not broken down during digestion and have the general formula c(3-7)h(2(3-7))o(3-7). Common monosaccharide"s > glucose, fructose, and galactose all have six carbon atoms c(6) Disaccharides: carbs composed of 2 monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bond. Glucose: present in blood, component of disaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose) Fructose: present in honey and fruits, added to foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. Galactose: converted into glucose for the body, in foods and living systems, usually joined with other monosaccharides. Pentoses: sugar molecules containing 5 carbon atoms. Sugar alcohols: compounds formed from monosaccharides by replacing a hydrogen atom with a hydroxyl group (-oh) used for nutritive sweeteners , also called polyols . Sucrose: common table sugar, purified from sugar beets or sugar cane, one molecule of glucose and one molecule fructose.

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