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Kin110_Chapter 10 Physical Fitness & Health.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Gina Whitaker

Kin110 Chapter 10 Physical Fitness & Health Building Physical Fitness Overload principle-in order to see improvements in fitness, the body must be placed under a demand that is higher than it is used to Fitness-the ability to perform routine physical activities without excessive fatigue 4 components determine a person’s fitness level Cardiorespiratory endurance-the efficiency with which the body delivers to cells the oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from cells Muscle strength/endurance-the amount of force and continued movement that can be produced by a single muscle contraction over time Flexibility-how far one can bend and stretch muscle and ligaments Body composition-the different components that makes up an individual’s body weight E.g. muscle vs. fat Exercise & Chronic Disease Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, bone and joint disorders, depression and anxiety, obesity Exercise Recommendations 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity accumulated in 10 minute bouts however; even more will produce greater health benefits 2 days of strength training activity per week is also recommended Fueling Exercise Oxygen and nutrients need to get to our tissues and waste products taken away -amount of oxygen getting to our tissues will help determine whether ATP is produced more from anaerobic metabolism (used in absence of oxygen) or aerobic metabolism (used in presence of oxygen) Cells need to produce enough ATP to fuel the working tissues -fueled by nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids) -relative proportion of nutrients used varies based on available stores, exercise intensity and duration Getting O2 to our muscle cells Inhaled oxygen is transferred from the lungs to the blood The cardiovascular system circulates the oxygen-rich blood throughout the body Oxygen is taken up by the muscles and other tissues and used to generate ATP, producing carbon dioxide as a waste product Carbon dioxide is carried away from the muscle by the blood Carbon dioxide is exhaled through the lungs Sources of ATP for Physical Activity: the first few minutes Physical activity increases the energy needs of working tissues including the muscles and the heart This energy comes from ATP and Creatine Phosphate Glucose Fatty acids Amino acids (minor) Energy Systems 1) ATP and Creatine Phosphate Very small pool of ATP available in cells (gone in under a second) CP can release phosphate which combines with ADP to form ATP Supplies are limited, fuels activity for 3 - 15 seconds of maximal effort Anaerobic Creatine phosphate + ADP → creatine + ATP (exercise) Creatine phosphate + ADP ← creatine + ATP (rest) 2) Glucose Anaerobic Metabolism Fuels activities from 20s to 3 min Also used when energy needs at the tissues outweigh the ability to transport oxygen to them E.g. Weight-lifting, sprinting Glucose → Lactic Acid + Carbon dioxide + 2 ATP Aerobic Metabolism Alone fuels activities 3 minutes to 20 minutes With Fatty Acids fuels activities >20min Used when activities are rhythmic and sustained, sending a constant amount of oxygen to the tissues E.g. Running, spinning Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + 30 ATP 3) Fatty Acids Always aerobic metabolism Initially during exercise blood [fatty acid] decreases After 20 minutes there is an increase in release of fatty acids from stores due to hormone epinephrine (adrenalin) Endurance training produces adaptations that enhance the ability to burn fat -increased size and number of mitochondria in muscles -increased number of capillaries to supply oxygen and nutrients to muscles 4) Protein Always aerobic metabolism Not a primary fuel for physical activity Usually contributes about 5 - 10% to energy expenditure both during activity and at rest -will be greater for athletes The Misleading Fat-Burning Zone Many cardio machines have both a cardio zone (higher intensity, where glucose is preferred fuel source) and a fat-burning zone (lower intensity, where fat is the preferred fuel source) While the % of Calories burned from fat is higher in the fat burning zone, you will burn more total Calories in the cardio zone Your weight affects how many Calories are expended during exercise Fatigue-inability to continue activity at optimal level Occurs when glycogen stores are depleted -occurs much more quickly with high intensity exercise because it relies more on anaerobic metabolism, which only uses glucose Physiological changes caused by aerobic training Increased delivery of oxygen to cells, and muscle cells change to increase glycogen storage and the ability to use oxygen Red blood cell count increases, capillaries in muscles increases Increase in size and number of mitochondria to increase ATP productions Sports Nutrition There are many variables that will influence a nutrition program when physical activity plays a role Type of physical activity -what energy system is being used and therefore what fuel source? Body composition & goals -what are their daily energy (kcal) requirements? -is there are goal to gain/lose weight? Others -dietary needs, health considerations, training program, competition (on/off-season), etc Determining Energy Requirements Activity Level Male kcal/lb Example 180lb Male Female kcal/lb Example 140lb Female Light 16 2880 kcal 15 2100 kcal Moderate 20 3600 kcal 17 2380 kcal Heavy 24 4320 kcal 20 2800 kcal Vigorous 28 5400 kcal 25 3500 kcal Athletes caloric needs may approach 50-80/kcal/kg/day E.g. 120lb = 54.5kg = 2730 to 4360kcals per day E.g. 200lb = 91kg = 4550 to 7280kcals per day Some athletes may at times need over 10,000 calories a day (Endurance Sports Nutrition) Cyclist in Tour de France was estimated as high as 12,000kcals/day (ISSN) Energy and Nutrient Needs for Physical Activity Carbohydrates: #1 fuel source High carbohydrate diet is needed for protein-sparing effect for all athletes Carbohydrates is the limiting factor and depletion results in exhaustion -glycogen depletion occurs with repeated days of heavy training and/or high-intensity exercise repeated several times -glycogen stores drop with each consecutive day of training – the effects are cumulative Therefore if carbohydrate intake is not adequate the athlete will not be able to perform at top level. Carbohydrate Needs A diet containing 55-65% (5-8g/kg/day) carbohydrate is required to maintain liver and muscle glycogen stores and to help recovery time from daily training Heavier the training, the greater the intake of carbohydrate is needed to prevent glycogen depletion – up to as much as 8-10grs/kg of body weight/day Ideally the dietary carbohydrate is coming from complex carbohydrate foods Maintaining Glycogen Stores Regular eating and a healthy diet will provide enough glycogen in the liver
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