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Kin140_Chapter 8 Birth Control and Pregnancy.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 8 Birth Control and Pregnancy Conception-the merging of a sperm with an ovum Sperm: testes → epididymis → vas deferens → urethra → vagina → uterus → fallopian tubes Ovum: ovaries → fallopian -women are born with their lifetime supply of ova, one is released each cycle during ovulation Fertilization occurs in fallopian tube If fertilized, the egg will divide to form a mass of cells, which will later implant into the endometrium (lining of the uterus) = implantation -after several divisions, it becomes an embryo -after about 8 weeks, the embryo is known as a fetus Factors to Consider When Choosing Birth Control Methods • Cost • Active vs. Passive method • Effectiveness • Accessibility • Safety/risks • Your lifestyle • Reversibility • Protection from STIs • Relationship situation Natural Birth Control Methods Abstinence-voluntary refrainment from sexual activities that include vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse -100% effective and risk free Outercourse-sexual activities such as kissing, hugging, sensual touching, and mutual masturbation -nearly 100% effective but pregnancy is possible if there is genital contact -some STIs can be transmitted through skin to skin contact even who no bodily fluids are exchanged Coitus interruptus (aka ‘pulling out’)-the removal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation -requires skill and trust -not recommended <80% effective Periodic Abstinence and Fertility Awareness-abstinence is practiced when a woman is at risk of getting pregnant (approximately 9-13 days per cycle) Methods used to determine ovulation/at risk period: Cervical-mucus/ovulation method-when mucus becomes clear, slippery as opposed to white/cloudy Calendar/rhythm method-approximately day 14 of cycle Basal-body-temperature method-when body temperature rises by > 1.75°C Hormonal Prescription Contraceptives Hormonal contraceptives mimic pregnancy hormones, tricking the body into thinking it is pregnant so an egg is not released They also typically lead to a thickening of the cervical mucus They include: • Contraceptive ring-flexible two inch ring inserted into the vagina which released estrogen and progestin preventing ovulation Advantages -no need for a daily pill, a fitting by a doctor or the use of spermicide Disadvantages -increased complaints of vaginal discharge, irritation, and infection -cannot use oil based vaginal medicine to treat yeast infections while the ring is in place, or a diaphragm or cervical cap for a backup method of birth control -those who cannot take the birth control bill for medical reasons cannot use the ring either • Contraceptive patch-a four centimetre square patch that sticks to the skin and continuously released estrogen into the bloodstream Advantages -more than 99% effective when used correctly -no need for a daily pill Disadvantages -increased risk of blood clots, heart attack, and stroke -may be less effective in women who weigh more than 89.9kg -wearers of contact lenses may experience a change in vision or be unable to control to wear lenses • Contraceptive injectable-an injection that contains a progestin, a synthetic version of the natural hormone progesterone which provides 3 months of contraceptive protection Advantages -no need for a daily pill -can be used for those who cannot take oral contraceptives containing estrogen Disadvantages -no protection against HIV infection and other STIs so condoms should be used -causes menstrual irregularities in most users -causes a delayed return of fertility, excessive endometrial bleeding, and other side effects including decreased libido, depression, headaches, dizziness, weight gain, frequent urination, and allergic reactions • Oral contraceptive-synthetic hormone pills that inhibit ovulation Advantages -they are extremely effective for those who do not miss any pills -they are reversible, so a woman can easily stop using them -they do not interrupt sexual activity -more regular periods, less cramping, and fewer tubal or ectopic pregnancies Disadvantages -no protection against HIV infection and other STIs so condoms should be used -some pills are time sensitive, and pregnancy can result if not taken at the same time each day -may cause various side effects including spotting between periods, weight gain or loss, nausea and vomiting, breast tenderness, and decreased sex drive -can interact with other medications which can make the birth control pill less effective or alter the effect of the other medications -higher risk of cardiovascular problems such as heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the veins • Implanted Contraceptives Non-hormonal Prescription Contraceptives • Cervical cap-a thimble sized rubber or plastic cap that is inserted into the vagina to fit over the cervix and prevent the passage of sperm into the uterus during sexual intercourse -used with a spermicide cream or jelly as both a chemical and a physical barrier Advantages -those who cannot use the diaphragm because of a pelvic-structure problem or loss of vaginal muscle can often use the cap -the cervical cap is less messy and does not require additional applications of spermicide if intercourse occurs more than once within several hours Disadvantages -a cervical cap is more difficult to insert and remove than a diaphragm, and using it requires those who are comfortable touching their vagina and cervix -using the cervical cap needs some planning since the cap must be inserted at least half an hour prior to intercourse -some find it uncomfortable to wear or their partners are able to feel the cervical cap during sex -the cervical cap does not protect against STIs and an allergy to latex can prevent some from using the cap • Diaphragm-a bowl-like rubber cup with a flexible rim that is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix and prevent the passage of sperm into the uterus during sex
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