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Kin140_Chapter 9 Infectious Diseases.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 9 Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease Caused by an infection-when a microorganism (e.g. bacteria, virus) invades the body of a host which is typically accompanied by damage to cells Invasion is followed by a latent period which is the time between infection and the development of symptoms/signs Pathogens: Agents of Infection Viruses-tiny non-living pathogens which invade living cells to reproduce (can’t survive without a specific host) -either kills the cell or alter its function which can lead to cancerous growth -antiviral drugs typically reduce the severity/duration of viral infections, but don’t completely eradicate them Bacteria-single celled organisms -most plentiful and pathogenic agents but most don’t cause disease -cause harm by either releasing enzymes or toxins -antibiotics can kill bacteria, but not viruses Fungi-eukaryotic organisms that come in a variety of shapes and sizes -yeasts, moulds, mushrooms -absorb nutrients from host, release enzymes which causes damage -antifungal drugs treat fungi Protozoa-single celled microscopic animals -release enzymes or toxins which destroy cells or interfere with cell function -typically treated with antibiotics Helminthes-parasitic worms -attack specific tissues or organs and compete with host for nutrients -some enter the body by burrowing through the skin, others enter through undercooked beef, pork or fish -can be treated by medications Routes of Transmission • Direct contact-body surface to body surface such as blood-borne and sexual contact • Indirect contact-contact of a susceptible host with hands or objects that are contaminated such as TV remote, computer keyboards, and eating utensils • Airborne transmission-very small droplets containing germs that are suspended in the air or dust such as measles, chicken pox, and tuberculosis • Common vehicle transmission • Animals and insects • People • Food • Contaminated water Immunity: First Line of Defense • Skin-when unbroken keeps out most potential invaders • Cilia-tiny hairs in the respiratory passages move mucus • Mucus-traps inhaled bacteria, viruses, dust, and foreign matter to the back of the throat where it is swallowed • Stomach acid-destroys invaders • Elevated body temperature • Cough • Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva-contain chemicals that can kill bacteria Second Line of Defense: The Immune System Your body recognizes pathogens as foreign because they have an antigen (a protein) on their surface that is different than your cellular antigens It will then launch an immune response to eliminate that pathogen Key immune components include: Macrophages-a cell that surrounds and digests foreign matter T-cells-thousands of different T cells work together to kill pathogens B-cells-secrete antibodies Memory B/T cells remain in the body to kick start the fight if the pathogen returns Antibodies-specific proteins that stick to the specific antigens of pathogens They cause pathogens to clump so: -they cannot enter cells -they can be more effectively excreted The Chain of Infection Immunization: The Key to Prevention Vaccination-inactive, weakened or small quantity of pathogen injected into body in order to create memory cells (T/B cells) Next time the pathogen comes into the body, your immune system knows how to fight it off (how to make a specific antibody for it) -eliminates pathogen before signs/symptoms experienced Vaccination has led to the eradication of small pox -and soon (hopefully) Polio Not associated with autism Infectious Diseases Common cold (rhinovirus) (virus) -more than 200 distinct types -spread by coughs, sneezes, touch, indirect contact Best prevention is frequent hand-washing, replacing toothbrushes regularly, and avoiding stress overload Best cure is the immune system • Rest, time, hot fluids, mild exercise, proper nutrition • Medications typically just mask symptoms • Cold-FX decreases incidence of colds, flu Influenza (flu) (virus) -more severe symptoms than the cold, lasts longer, same treatment Protecting Yourself from Colds and Flu • Wash your hands frequently with hot water and soap. In a public restroom, use paper towels to turn off the faucet after you wash your hands, and avoid touching the doorknob • Get adequate sleep and exercise • Eat a balanced diet (fruits, veggies, high quality protein) • Don’t share food or drinks • Don’t touch eyes, mouth, and nose after being with someone who has cold symptoms • Use tissues rath
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