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Kin140_Chapter 6 Weight Management.docx

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Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course
BPK 140
Professor
Diana Bedoya
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 6 Weight Management What Causes Obesity More Calories -many extra calories come from refined carbohydrates Bigger portions -the size of many popular restaurant and packaged foods has increased two to five times Fast food -people who eat frequently at fast-food restaurants gain more weight and develop metabolic abnormalities that increase their risk of Type 2 Diabetes Hunger, appetite and satiety differences -hormones, including insulin and stress-related epinephrine, may stimulate or supress hunger (the psychological drive to consume food) -temptation may override our natural feeling of fullness/satiety and encourage overeating, causing internal changes that increase appetite (the psychological desire to eat) and consequently our weight Physical Inactivity -not enough exercise Passive Entertainment -using technology takes up time that otherwise might be spent doing physical activities -people tend to eat more while watching TV or sitting at a computer Prenatal factors -a woman’s weight before conception and weight gain during pregnancy influences her child’s weight therefore, children are prone to gaining weight because their mothers developed gestational diabetes during their pregnancies Developmental factors -fat tissue increase by hyperplasia (number)/hypertrophy (size) -fat tissue decreases by hypotrophy alone Genetics -abnormalities in many genes create a predisposition to weight gain and obesity -the GAD2 gene signals the brain to tell us to eat, therefore if this gene is defective or malfunctions, it could contribute to weight problems by signalling us to eat more often than we need to -the Ob gene which interprets our body’s built in feeling full system, might be the gene that allows us to eat a greater amount of food than we need to survive Emotional influences -while psychological problems such as irritability, depression, and anxiety are more likely to be the result of obesity, not the cause, some people who are emotionally fragile do cope by overeating Social Determinants -people in lower social-economic classes tend to be more obese -people in the upper classes who can afford as much food as they want tend to be leaner -education may be a factor Social Networks -obesigenic behavior spreads through social networks based more on psychosocial relations than biological or environmental relations -close friendship with an obese person predicts obesity more than living near obese people or familial relation to an obese person (Christakis 2007) Mindless Eating-eating more than you think you’re eating and enjoying it much less than you should -our intake is often influenced by external cues (instead of internal ones), promoting over- consumption -to combat mindless eating: control your environment more, focus on food while you’re eating it/before you eat it, don’t be swayed by external cues such as savvy marketing Ideal Weight-the weight at which one’s health risk is the lowest Determining ideal size: Body Fat % / Body composition Waist Circumference: >102 cm for men; >88cm for women -people who have apple shaped bodies (weight around the waist) are most likely than those with pear shaped bodies (weight on hips and thighs) to have high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of diabetes Waist-to-Hip Ratio: >1 for men; >.85 for women = higher risk disease BMI-a ratio between weight and height that correlates with body fat 2 BMI = weight (kg) / (height (m)) What BMI Means But remember: BMI
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