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BPK 140 (134)

Chapter 7

5 Pages

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 140
Michael Walsh

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1 KIN 140 Section 7 Dr Mike Walsh PHYSICAL FITNESS A. What is Physical Fitness? Physical fitness is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies. Thus, physical fitness is the ability to last, to bear up, to withstand stress, and to persevere under difficult circumstances where an unfit person would quit. B. Components of Physical Fitness 1. Cardiovascular Fitness Cardiovascular fitness is also identified as cardiovascular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and aerobic power. Cardiovascular fitness is the quality that enables one to endure reasonably vigorous physical activity for extended periods. Generally speaking, cardiovascular fitness is involved in activities that require the use of much of the body's large musculature (for example, running, swimming, cycling, or exercise to music) because these activities force the heart and circulatory system and the respiratory system to operate at a much higher level than usual. These activities are those that must be terminated when one's circulatory and respiratory systems can no longer meet the demands of the activity. Cardiorespiratory capacity is dependent on the body's ability to take in, transport, and utilize oxygen. 2. Muscular Endurance Muscular endurance is the quality that enables one to persist in localized muscle-group activities for extended periods. Think of the typical tests that involve primarily local muscle groups, such as pull-ups and push-ups; these tests are usually terminated because the local muscle groups are unable to respond further, not because of inadequate performance of the cardiorespiratory system in general. 3. Strength Strength, in a simplified definition, is defined as the maximal force exerted in one effort. Its primary limitation is the amount of muscle cross-sectional area. 2 4. Flexibility Flexibility is defined as the fundamental capacity of a joint to move through a normal range of motion. It is specific to given joints and is actually more dependent upon the musculature and connective tissue surrounding a joint than on the actual bony structure of the joint itself (except in cases of disease or disorders of the skeletal system or its joints). 5. Body Composition Body composition is most simply defined as the relative percentages of fat and fat-free body mass. Excess amounts of body fat take the form of excess baggage that makes it more difficult to perform many types of physical activities. Note: the above components of physical fitness are the one’s most commonly found on such a list. These components are the health-related components of physical fitness. Other components are skill-related aspects of physical fitness. These additional components include agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed. C. Health Aspects of PhysicalActivity Sedentary (low activity) people have 50 % more health problems than active people. Lack of physical activity is a risk factor for many health concerns: Hypertension Regular CV exercise lowers blood pressure about 10 mm Hg. Diabetes Regular CV exercise increases the number of glucose transporters in muscle membranes and increase one's sensitivity to insulin. Obesity Either regular CV exercise or strengthening exercise can create fat loss. Mostly, CV burns fats during exercise and strength training burns fats after exercise. 3 Hyperlipidemia Exercise can increase HDL and the ratio of HDL to LDL fats as well as lower total blood fat. Osteoporosis The loss of bone density that occurs with age can be quite disabling if one starts from a low density. Strength and weight bearing exercises increase bone density. Cancer Lack of exercise is a risk factor for some cancers. Recently breast cancer has been identified as one such cancer. One possible mechanism for this is an increase in enzymes that remove free radicals. Atherosclerosis Both the lower blood fats and greater angiogenesis can reduce the risk of,
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