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BPK 140 (134)
Lecture

Chapter 9

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Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course
BPK 140
Professor
Michael Walsh
Semester
Fall

Description
1 KIN 140 Section 9 Dr Mike Walsh ALCOHOLAND TOBACCO I. Alcohol A. Types ofAlcohol Alcohol is a drug and is the leading cause of death in the 15-24 age group. There are 3 common types of alcohol in our society and only one is ‘safe’to drink. 1. Isopropyl Alcohol This nondrinking variety is used as rubbing alcohol and disinfecting. 2. MethylAlcohol Is also called wood alcohol and is used in antifreeze. 3. Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) This is the only type you can drink. Ethanol is made by yeast (and bacteria) fermenting sugar and then distilling it. In terms of alcohol content Beer 3-6 % (by volume) Wine 9-14 % Sherry/port 20 % Hard liquor 35-50 % (70-100 proof) In terms of alcohol equivalence, the following each has about 0.6 oz of alcohol: 12 oz of beer 5 oz of wine 1.5 oz of hard liquor B. Alcohol absorption Since alcohol does not have to be broken down, it is absorbed very rapidly. Twenty percent of alcohol is absorbed in the stomach and 75 % in the first part of the small intestine. 2 Having food in the stomach will slow absorption and carbonation will speed absorption. There is an ethnic difference in absorption. Oriental and First Nations people absorb more quickly. C. BloodAlcohol Concentration (BAC) BAC is measured in volume percent. Currently in BC, the legal limit is 0.08 % (volume percent) and MADD is trying to lower it to 0.05 %. In the US, some states have their legal limit at 0.08 % and others as 0.10 %. In some countries, like Sweden, the limit is zero. BAC is determined by several factors: Amount consumed Duration of consumption Body weight Absorption Metabolism etc. D.Alcohol Metabolism Alcohol is both water and lipid soluble. This means it moves easily into most tissues. It is metabolized in the liver and the stomach by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. This enzyme converts alcohol to acetaldehyde (quite toxic). Then a second enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, converts acetaldehyde to acetate. Slow metabolism causes an increase in acetaldehyde that induces a flushing effect. We have at least nine different forms of alcohol dehydrogenase thereby accounting for a lot of individual differences in metabolism. Bacteria can also metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde in the colon and in addition to its normal toxic effects, can reduce folic acid in the colon. Slowing stomach emptying with food reduces BAC because of the longer time for the stomach to metabolize alcohol. Fresh air, coffee, exercise, and sleep do not change the rate of alcohol metabolism. Alcoholics have lower levels of enzyme degradation activity because the expression of the enzyme has been reduced by chronic alcohol consumption. E. Women andAlcohol 3 Women cannot tolerate alcohol as well as men. Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase. Women have smaller bodies and even less body water for dilution. Women have more estrogen. Estrogen enhances the intoxication of alcohol. This means a woman’s blood alcohol level will increase more than a male’s for the same amount of alcohol consumed. These gender differences can make a substantial effect on intoxication.All of this means is that healthy nonpregnant women should drink less than men. F. Effects of Alcohol 1. Acute Use Table 8.1 illustrates the behavioural effects of acute alcohol intake based on BAC. Alcohol depresses neural function. Since most of our behaviours are based on removal of inhibition rather than stimulation, thus neural depressant effects means less inhibition, less sense of fear, greater belligerence. Alcohol is a contributing factor (often in both perpetrators and victims) in greater than 50 % of murders, assaults, rapes, and unplanned and unsafe sex. 2. Chronic Use As shown in Fig. 8.3, chronic alcohol use destroys brain cells, weakens the cardiovascular system, increases breast cancer incidence, lowers immunity, increases cirrhosis of the liver, increases GI cancers, increases kidney failure, increases nutritional deficiency, increases menstrual irregularities, increases FAS, and increases osteoporosis. G.Alcohol Dependence In becoming alcohol dependent one often goes through a continuum or needing a drink at parties or other social events, needing a drink at the end of a day, and/or needing a drink to escape daily problems. Addiction to alcohol is similar to becoming addicted to most other drugs. In addition, there are other factors, less common with other drugs, that lead to alcohol dependency: 1. Part of Culture/custom An example of this recently occurred in Korea. They just changed their workers compensation laws to include alcoholic disorders because of the large amount of drinking essentially required after work with co-workers.As a side note, they also included death from over work. At some weddings, toasting the newly married couple is a tradition. 4 2. Advertising/Entertainment Although some advertising of alcohol is not permitted in our society, it is common on TV. These commercials, as is their purpose, are designed to increase sales of alcohol and they do a good job. 3. Sign of Adulthood This is more common for males. On campus, you can become a member of the 40-beer club, i.e., drinking 40 beers within the opening hours of pubs. Excessive alcohol is also associated with stag celebrations and fraternity parties. In these situations, binge drinking is observed. Twenty-three percent of students have been found to be binge drinkers, i.e., at least 3 binges in a 2 week period. This percentage is higher in fraternities and sororities, with males leading the way. Binge drinking leads to belligerence, and unwanted, unplanned or unsafe sex. H. Tendency for Alcoholism Agreat many people are exposed to alcohol but much fewer become addicted. Factors that help lead to addiction include Genetic predisposition Addictive personality Socialization problems Inadequate coping problems The lifetime risk can be as high as 1/10.Achronic alcoholic will drink any type of alcohol. I. Teratogenicity Alcohol is a poison that damages fetal development both physically and mentally. These effects are not reversible. Inability to learn right from wrong is common in people who suffer fetal alcohol syndrome.Alarge proportion of prison inmates suffer FAS or its more mild form, fetal alcohol effects (FAE: more mental deficits and not physical). J. Conclusion 5 If you can afford a drink, you can afford a taxi. II. TOBACCO In Canada, tobacco will kill 3 times as many people as the combined total of alcohol, AIDS, illicit drugs, car accidents, suicide, and murder. This makes smoking the most important cause of preventable illness, disability, and premature death in Canada. In BC, between the ages of 15 and 18, there are 50,000 smokers. Of thes
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