BPK 140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Metastasis, Menarche, Mammography

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BPK 140Lecture 5 Cancer (part 1)
Cancer
- Understanding cancer: uncontrolled growth & spread of cells
- Benign, malignant phase
- Metastasis: spread of cancer
o Proteins on surface of cells keep them attached to each other, when cancer cell
metastasizes, it can spread to other parts of the body
- Common types
o Lung (#1 mortality), skin (#1 incidence), breast, prostate, colon & rectal, cervical,
ovarian
- 7 warning signs of cancer
o change in bowel habits
o a sore that doesn’t heal
o unusual bleeding/discharge
o thickening of lump in breast, testes, elsewhere
o indigestion/difficulty swallowing
o obvious change in a wart/mole
o nagging cough/hoarseness
lung cancer
- smoking is the leading risk factor; second hand smoke, asbestos, pollution major risk
factors as well (firefighters have a high instance of developing lung cancer)
- difficult to detect lung cancer
skin cancer
- risk factor for skin cancer
o fair skin, light eyes, fair hair
o family history
- catching melanoma: checking moles
breast cancer
- age
- family history
- age at menarche
- age at birth of first child
- estrogen
- most common in females
- high chance of survival if caught
- mammography, clinical breast exam, regular breast self examination
screening: general examination of everyone
testing: done on those who believe to have cancer. More invasive, time consuming, costly
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