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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 142
Craig Asmundson

Study Question – unit 15 Is the mechanical advantage of a first-class lever greater than, less than, or equal to one? - Recall that MA = FA/RA - First class levers are can be either or force or speed levers - Therefore: MA could be greater than or less than 1 or equal - The FA and RA can vary in length Study Question – UNIT 16 The experiment described in this lab fixes the centre of gravity along the transverse plane of the body. How would you fix the exact location of the centre of gravity along the frontal and sagittal planes of the body? - Use segmental method - Determines COG for each of body segments, the position of each gravity point with respect to x&y axes and with the ratio between individual segment mass and total body mass - PG 129 study guide Study Questions – Unit 18 Define “atria” and “ventricles.” Which vessels enter or exit the atria and ventricles?  Atria: body cavity/chamber in the heart that receives blood from veins and forces it into a ventricle o Receptors of deoxygenated blood  Ventricles: chamber on left and right side of heart o Right ventricle receives venous blood (deoxygenated) from right atrium and pumps into pulmonary artery o Left ventricle receives arterial blood (oxygenated) from left atrium and pumps into aorta Describe the flow of a red blood cell from the right atrium to the aortic arch, identifying the major structures along the way, and the function associated with each structure.  Pulmonary circuit o R atrium – R Ventricle – Pulmonary Artery (L/R) – ateriole – capillary – pulmonary vein (blood returns to heart for systemic circuit)  Systemic circuit o L atrium – L ventricle – Aorta – R Iliac Artery – Arteriole – Capillary @ toe of R foot – venule – R femoral vein – vena cava – R atrium Discuss the importance of the elasticity and contractility of the arteries.  Large changing pressures they need to be very elastic to do so w/o breaking  Have to spring back into shape – walls becoming bigger reduces blood pressure Explain how blood returns to the right atrium. Why should one “cool down” after vigorous exercise rather than stop abruptly?  R ventricle > semi lunar valve to lungs (pulmonary artery) > lung sback to left atrium through pulm vein and AV valve< left ventricle to semi lunar valve> through aorta back to body via vena cava > right atrium through tricuspid valve > right ventricle  Prevent post exercise low bP & dizziness o Lack of blood flowing back to heart and brain because blood pooling in legs Describe the location of the heart in the thoracic cavity.  Mediastinal space of thoracic cavity between 2 pleura enclosing the lungs Why is the wall of the left ventricle thicker than the wall of the right ventricle?  Left ventricle pumps blood @ higher pressure because it has to reach further distance (all areas of body)  Left v only pumps to lungs Why are the heart valves important? Can the heart function with leaky valves?  Prevent backflow of blood  Oxygenated blood doesn’t mix with deoxygenated  Blood running from pulmonary wont mix with aortic side  Yes as long as impairment isn’t too bad (may need open heart surgery) Why are artery walls so much thicker than those of corresponding veins?  Blood pumped directly into arteries (more pressure) Study Questions – UNIT 19 1. When measuring blood pressure you must listen for Korotkoff sounds at the brachial artery using a stethoscope. Why can't you hear these sounds before the cuff is inflated? - The blood is pumped through smoothly by the heart throughout the arteries (non-turbulent) - Sounds can only be heard when pressure is in between systolic/diastolic - Artery will be contricted/no blood flow to lower arm - Sounds made when blood flow through causes wall of artery underneath stetho to vibrate 2. If blood pressure was measured at the level of a subject's calf rather than at the level of the upper arm, would you expect the blood pressure readings to be different? Explain. - Ankle should be higher than arm - Additional pressure from elastic compression of vessel walls 3. Describe four sources of error when recording blood pressure from an exercising subject. - Improper positioning of subject (should be @ level of heart) - Improper deflation of cuff (should be 2mmHg / beat) - Recording the first bP measurement (should wait a few minutes or it will be extremely high) - Improper application of cuff (applied too loose, bulging, ballooning) 4. Give a physiological explanation for the changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure which you theoretically would expect to observe for your subject on the bicycle ergometer as exercise intensity increased from a low level to a higher level. - Systolic increases up to 200 mmHg, diastolic remains relatveily the same and changes a little 5. Procedures which use submaximum exercise heart rates to predict VO2max are based on a number of
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