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Lecture 12

KIN 142 Lecture 12: Psych 102

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 142
Neil Watson

Psychology 102: Intro to Psychology Part II Textbook Notes Chapter 12: Development over the Lifespan D EVELOPMENTAL P SYCHOLOGY : ISSUES & M ETHODS • Study of biological, physical, psychological, and behavioural changes across the life span • Four main categories o Nature vs. Nurture—to what extent is our development the product of:  Heredity/ biology?  Environment ? o Critical vs. sensitive periods  Critical period: an age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally ((i.e. ducks have a 2.5 day critical period for maternal imprinting)  Sensitive period: an optimal age range for certain experiences o Continuity vs. discontinuity  Gradual, progressive stages?  Qualitative, distinct stages? o Stable vs. changing  Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age? (personality) • Three main study designs + case studies o Cross-sectional study: various diff groups of diff ages studied at one time o Longitudinal study: one group studied over a progression of time o Mixed study: diff aged groups studied over a progression of time o Case-study: unusual cases; used when an experimental study is not ethical or possible P RENATAL D EVELOPMENT G ENETICS AND S EX DETERMINATION • Germinal Stage (Zygote) o Conception to 2 weeks: The first 14 days of development o the fertilized egg: egg & sperm (23 chromosomes from both egg & sperm)  ♀: XX  ♂: XY o Attaches to uterus 10-14 days after conception o The time period when pregnancy tests are ineffective • Embryonic Stage (Embryo) o 2 weeks through 8 weeks o The placenta & umbilical cord are the life support (via blood vessesls) 1 o Cells differentiate into specialties: bodily organs & systems begin to form and function (i.e. week 8: heart, brain, recognizeable facial features) o Weeks 6-8: Testes Determining Factor gene (TDF) initiates development of testes • Fetus o 9 weeks until birth (39 weeks): muscles strengthen o 12 WEEKS: ‘walking in the womb’ o 24 weeks, eyes open o 28 weeks, the fetus is viable o Capable of learning (through maternal diet & voice, external noise; short-term memory) E NVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Teratogens: agents that cause abnormal development during the prenatal stage o Alcohol (FASD) o Environmental toxins, radiation, mercury, lead… nd o Medications, drugs (heroin, cocaine, Nicotine and 2 hand smoke) o Diseases/ viruses: German measles (rubella), STDS (HIV) INFANCY AND C HILDHOOD T HE A MAZING N EWBORN o The Competent Newborn  with classical and operant conditioning (e.g., mother’s face, sounds, engage in behaviour to get ‘reward’) o Preferences  Human voices and faces  Smell and sound of mother preferred N EWBORN SENSATION & P ERCEPTION : • Visual experience of Infants: 40x worse than adult normal visual acuity • Gestalt principles (i.e closure and proximity) 2 -infants readily turn to off-centered auditory and tactile targets and odours; they prefer complex patterns over plain ones NEWBORN LEARNING : -they learn through classical & operant conditioning, as well as imitation/modelling o Visual habituation procedure—newborns looked longer at novel stimuli o Auditory habituation procedure—used to test memory SENSORY -P ERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL , BRAIN,AND M OTOR D EVELOPMENT • Cephalocaudal principle: reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-toe direction • Proximodistal principle: states that development begins from the innermost parts of the body to the outermost THE YOUNG BRAIN: A T BIRTH 3 MONTHS 15MONTHS M OTOR DEVELOPMENT : • Reflexes • Rooting reflex • Palmar Grasp • Swimming • Scientific American: Baby Body Sense 3 E NVIRONMENTAL AND C ULTURAL INFLUENCES • Development (physical, neurological, motor-skill) is also largely influenced by experiences o Impoverished & deprivation environments (i.e. starvation) stunts physical and neurological development (permanent deficits) o physical touch, nurturing, enriched environments & experiences fosters physical, sensory-motor, and psychological growth C OGNITIVE D EVELOPMENT Jean Piaget “If we examine the intellectual development of the individual or of the whole of humanity, we shall find that the human spirit goes through a certain number of stages, each different from the other.” –1930 Cognitive development involves “give and take” between these: • Assimilation—the process by which new experiences (horse) are incorporated into existing schemas (doggie) (i.e. a horse is a ‘big doggie’ since it has 4 legs and a tail) • Accommodation—new experiences cause existing schemas to change (i.e. recognition that a horse is not just a big ‘doggie’ since it doesn’t bark, sit, fetch, or otherwise act doggie-like) P IAGET ’SS TAGE M ODEL Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 • Achieves Object Permanence (~8mos) years): o awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Experiencing the world through • Language senses and motor interactions with world • Stranger Anxiety • Emergence of symbolic thought Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years• Can form ideas • Lack logical reasoning Represent the world symbolically • Language (begins after 1 yrs) through words and mental images, but do not yet understand basic • Symbolic thinking: Understanding less concrete mental operations or rules. concepts; using words and images to represent objects 7 experiences; pretend play • They lack Conservation [the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same even if they look different on the outside] • Egocentrism [the inability to see things from another’s point of view], irreversibility, and centration Concrete Operational (7 to 12 • Can think logically about concrete events years): • Grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering Thinking logically about concrete Concrete Operational example: events; grasping concrete analogie4 + 1 = odd (OK) and performing arithmetical 6 + 1 = odd (OK) 4 operations 8 + 1 = odd (OK) Even + 1 = odd (can’t generalize) Formal Operational (12 throug• Abstract reasoning/logic adulthood) • Concrete and abstract • More creative, flexible thinking • Potential for moral reasoning/values Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory -Cognitive development is found to unfold in the same sequence across cultures, yet, the stages don’t necessarily occur at the exact, stated ages—some aspects of each stage can overlap with other stages -too Westernized (scientific, logical) rather than other cultures which consider cognitive development to be more relational/ interpersonal (i.e. respect, helpfulness, responsible) -he downplayed the complexity of cognition VYGOTSKY : THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF C OGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Zone of proximal development—the difference between what a child can do with assistance or independently INFORMATION PROCESSING A PPROACHES • NFORMATION -SEARCHS TRATEGIES • PROCESSING SPEE,ATTENTION,AND RESPONSE INHIBITION • WORKING MEMORY AND LONG-TERM MEMORY • CONTINUITY VERSUD ISCONTINUITY THEORY OF MIND : HILDREN ’SU NDERSTANDING OF M ENTAL STATES • Theory of Mind: a child’s beliefs about the mind and the ability to understand others’ mental states • LYING ANDD ECEPTION • PERSPECTIVET AKING ANDEARLY W ORD -LEARNING SOCIAL -EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY D EVELOPMENT EARLY E MOTIONS AND EMOTION REGULATION : Are children born with emotions? Yes, these are the basic born-with emotions: 5 • Emotion-regulation: self- evaluation and modification of emotional reactions; a person who can’t regulate their emotion are not as likeable or popular T EMPERAMENT -is innate • ‘easy infants’—ate and slept on schedule, playful, no fussing in new situations • ‘difficult infants’—irritable, fussy eaters & sleepers, negative responses in new situations, higher anxiety; more likely to develop emotional and/or behavioural problems through life • ‘Slow-to-warm-up infants’—least active, mildly negative responses to new situations but over time, slowly adapted • Behavioural inhibition—involves shyness, quite & timid, cry & withdraw when exposed to unfamiliarity [Video: Scientific American Frontiers segment 23: Bringing up Monkeys {YouTube: D3E23: Brining up Monkey}] E RIKSON ’S P SYCHOSOCIAL T HEORY (ERIK E RIKSON ) Age Stages Conflict/Issues to overcome First yr. Trust vs. mistrust Depending on how adequately our needs were met, and how much love and attention we receive during year 1, we develop this view of the world 1-2 yrs Autonomy vs. Shame and Children are ready to exercise their individuality. If doubt they are unduly restricted, or given harsh demand, they develop the lack of courage to be independent 3-5 yrs Initiative vs. Guilt Children display great curiosity about the world. If not allowed to explore and receive answers to their questions, they supress their curiosity out of guilt 6-12 yrs Industry vs. Inferiority Children’s life expands into school and peer activities. Industry is developed when children experience pride 6 & encouragement during their mastery of tasks. 12-20 yrs Identity vs. role confusion During adolescence 20-40 yrs Intimacy vs. isolation Intimacy: the ability to form close relationships 40-65 Generativity vs. Generativity: developed by doing things for others and stagnation making the world a better place 65+ Integrity vs. despair Despair results when looking back over one’s life creates a sense of guilt & regret for not living a more fulfilling life 7 A TTACHMENT • T HE ATTACHMENT PROCESS -What creates good attachment? Food (essential survival provision) or nurture (comfort) [Video: Harlow’s monkey experiment]: • Three stageOF DEVELOPING ATTACHMENT : o Indiscriminate attachment o Discriminate attachment (~MOS ) o Specific attachment behaviour (~7MOS )— THE FIRST STRONG ATTACHMENT FIGURE IS ESTABLISHED . **a child’sCRITICAL PERIOD FOR ATTACHMENT IS ~12 YRS .OLD (BASED ON CASE STUDIES OF ‘FERAL CHILDREN ’)— WITHIN THIS IS A SENSITIVE PERIOD. • Stranger Anxiety (6MOS -18MOS )— DISTRESS OVER CONTACT WITH UNFAMILIAR PEOPLE (WHEN TOUCHED ,APPROACHED BY ,HANDED OVER TO STRANGERS ) • Seperation Anxiety (12-MOS –2/3 YRS)— DISTRESS OVER SEPARATION WITH THE PRIMARY CAREGIVER • T YPES OF A TTACHMENT (JOHN BOLBY ) From “Strange Situation” we can determine attachment style: [Video
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