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BPK 142 (161)
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Altitude and Performance -- These are fill in the blank style lecture notes with the occasional extras about which things were especially important to remember or further explanation on certian topics.

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 142
Paul Lee

KINESIOLOGY 142 ALTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE I. PHYSICS OF ALTITUDE Medium altitude - ________________ feet - in relation to athletics, we are concerned with this altitude range High altitude - greater than ___________ feet. More than 40 million people live and work between 10,000 ft. (3048 meters) and 18,000 ft. (5486 meters). Barometric (air) pressure ___decreases___ as altitude increases (ie) as the weight of the column of air above the point of measurement ____decreases____. However, the chemical composition of the atmosphere is ___uniform____ up to 20,000 meters. PO2in dry ambient air at sea level = .209 X 760 mm Hg = 160 mmHg PO2in dry ambient air at 3048 meters (10,000 ft.) = .209 X 510 mm Hg = 107 mm Hg. PO in dry ambient air at summit of Mt Everest - 8848 meters (29,028 ft.) 2 = .209 X 250 mm Hg = 52 mm Hg. [As you go up higher, barometric pressure decreases but chemical composition remains the same.] Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve - only a small change in percent saturation of hemoglobin is observed with decreasing PO 2ntil an altitude of about 10,000 ft. Measurable __negative___effects on VO max. have been noted at altitudes as low 2 as 4000 ft. The critical alveolar P2 at which an unacclimatized person loses consciousness within a few minutes during acute exposure to___hypoxia___occurs at an altitude of___23,000___ ft. Decreased ___density___of air  decreased external ai___resistance___ external work is___decreased__at altitude in sprint type activities where high 2 velocities are involved. There will also be less air resistance encountered by projectiles. Air temperature ___decreases___linearly by 6.5 C per 1000 meters of altitude or 2 C (3 F) per 1000 ft. Air becomes increasingly _dry__ with increasing altitude  water loss via respiratory tract ___higher__at high altitude. Solar radiation - UV radiation is __more__ intense at high altitude  sunburn, snow blindness Force of gravity is decreased with distance from the earth's center  higher altitudes should have a favourable effect on jumping and throwing events. II. IMMEDIATE AND LONGER ADJUSTMENTS TO ALTITUDE HYPOXIA A. Cardiovascular System VO 2 (HR X SV) X (C O - C Oa 2 7 - 10 days 12,000 ft. --> 15 - 21 days 15,000 ft. --> 21 - 25 days The length of time required depends to a large extent on the __individual___. A few people will never acclimatize and will continue to suffer mountain sickness. Acclimatization to one altitude ensures only partial acclimatization to a higher altitude. High altitude exposure for periods longer than two weeks results in a significant reduction is both body fat and lean body mass due mostly to __a decrease in appetite____. The benefits of acclimatization are probably lost within 2 or 3 weeks after returning to sea level. III. ALTITUDE TRAINING AND SEA LEVEL PERFORMANCE A. Altitude Training In order to attain top achievement at altitudes of 6500 feet or higher, endurance athletes should acclimatize for __2-3 weeks____ before their major competition. Non-endurance athletes may arrive close to the time of competition. During the first few days at altitude, athletes may experience acute mountain sickness, which may hinder their training. Since VO m2x. is decreased at altitude, intensity of training must be __decreased____. However, this problem can be solved by living at altitude, but going down to lower altitudes for few hours per day to _train__ – “ ___sleep high, train low____”. 6 It is not necessary to train at a higher altitude than the actual place of
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