BPK 142 Lecture Notes - Mitral Valve, Chordae Tendineae, Tricuspid Valve

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Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Heart
Approximately the size of your fist
Weighs less than a pound
5 Liters of blood is pumped through 60 000 miles of blood vessels per minute
Beats ~100 000 times a day
Location
Superior surface of diaphragm
Left of the midline
Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum
Heart Covering
Pericardium
• Protects and anchors heart
• Prevents overfilling
Heart Wall
Epicardium - visceral layer of the serous pericardium
Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart
Endocardium – lines the heart chambers and continues with endothelial lining of blood vessels
External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart
Superior & inferior venae cava
Right and left pulmonary veins
Pulmonary trunk (splits into R & L pulmonary arteries)
Ascending aorta (3 branches) – brachiocephalic, carotid, & subclavian arteries
Atria of the Heart
Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart
Each atrium has a protruding auricle
Blood enters right atria from superior & inferior venae cava & coronary sinus
Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins
Interatrial Septum separate atria
Ventricles of the Heart
Ventricles are the discharging chambers
Papillary muscles & trabeculae muscles mark ventricular walls
Interventricular septum separate ventricles
Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta
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Document Summary

Heart: approximately the size of your fist, weighs less than a pound. 5 liters of blood is pumped through 60 000 miles of blood vessels per minute. Left of the midline: anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum. Pericardium: protects and anchors heart, prevents overfilling. Epicardium - visceral layer of the serous pericardium: myocardium cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart. Endocardium lines the heart chambers and continues with endothelial lining of blood vessels. Pulmonary trunk (splits into r & l pulmonary arteries: ascending aorta (3 branches) brachiocephalic, carotid, & subclavian arteries. Atria of the heart: atria are the receiving chambers of the heart. Blood enters right atria from superior & inferior venae cava & coronary sinus. Ventricles of the heart: ventricles are the discharging chambers. Papillary muscles & trabeculae muscles mark ventricular walls. Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk. Pathway of blood through the heart and lungs (pulmonary & systemic circuits)

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