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The Heart- Some helpful notes I compiled (a bit messy though)

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 142
Craig Asmundson

Cardiovascular System: The Heart Heart • Approximately the size of your fist • Weighs less than a pound • 5 Liters of blood is pumped through 60 000 miles of blood vesselsper minute • Beats ~100 000 times a day Location • Superior surface of diaphragm • Left of the midline • Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum Heart Covering Pericardium • Protects and anchors heart • Prevents overfilling Heart Wall • Epicardium - visceral layer of the serous pericardium • Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart • Endocardium – lines the heart chambers and continues with endothelial lining of blood vessels External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart • Superior & inferior venae cava • Right and left pulmonary veins • Pulmonary trunk (splits intoR & L pulmonary arteries) • Ascending aorta (3 branches) – brachiocephalic, carotid, & subclavian arteries Atria of the Heart • Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart • Each atrium has a protruding auricle • Blood enters right atria from superior& inferior venae cava& coronary sinus • Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins • Interatrial Septum separate atria Ventricles of the Heart • Ventricles are the discharging chambers • Papillary muscles& trabeculaemuscles mark ventricular walls • Interventricular septum separate ventricles • Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk • Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta Cardiovascular System: The Heart Pathway of Blood through the Heart and Lungs (Pulmonary & Systemic Circuits) • Right atrium  tricuspid valve right ventricle • Right ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve pulmonaryarterieslungs • Lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium • Left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle • Left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta • Aorta  systemic circulation Heart Valves • Heart valves insure unidirectional blood flow through the heart • Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria& the ventricles • AV valves prevent backflow into the atriawhen ventricles contract • Chordae tendineae anchor AV valves to papillary muscles • Aortic semilunar valve lies between the left ventricle& the aorta • Pulmonary semilunar valve lies between theright ventricle & pulmonary trunk • Semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles Cardiac muscle is striated, short, fat, bran
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