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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

- Lack of fitness affect the levels of hormones in a body, the blood lipid (fat) profile, your body composition, and so on - The genotype describes the genetic constitution of an individual - The phenotype of an individual organism describes one of its measureable traits or characteristics - Exp of phenotype: blue eyes, aggressive behavior - Phenotype affected by genes, environmental factors Genotype + Environment Phenotype - Fitness level is a phenotype that is influenced by both an individual’s genetics and his/her environment - Researchers argue that people are programmed (genotype) to be active and it is common for disease to occur (phenotype) in those who live sedentary lives (environment) - Epigenetics: the study of heritable changes in phenotype (gene expression) caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence - Genes can get “turned on” and “turned off” by the environment humans encounter and this can be passed on to future generations - Physical activities is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with the ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies - Fitness professionals and academics generally agree on the following components of physical fitness:  Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance  Muscular strength  Muscular endurance  Flexibility  Body composition Health Related Performance Related  Body Composition  Power  Cardiovascular Endurance  Speed & Quickness  Muscular Strength  Agility  Muscular Endurance  Balance  Flexibility  Motor Skill Strength, Power, Speed, etc. Static strength is the force that can be held in one place (force) Static strength = Force Example: isometrics Strength is the weight that can be moved through a distance (work), or the ability of muscle to generate force against a resistance Strength = Force x Distance Example: competitive powerlifting (a misnomer) Power is the product of a force and the speed (power). Power can be expressed by the work achieved in a unit time (asymptotic). Power is a combination of strength and speed. Power = Force x Distance / Time Example: Olympic style weightlifting (strength dominated power), shot-put or jump (speed dominated power) Speed is the distance traveled per unit time without regard to direction (speed) Speed = Distance / Time Example: sprinting, running Velocity is the speed and direction of an entity (velocity) Velocity = Speed and direction Muscular Endurance = ability to perform repetitive or sustained muscular contractions against some resistance for and extended period of time. Types of Muscular Endurance  Continuous tension o Mountain climbing o Tug-of-war o Isometric contraction o Weight training  very slow contraction  isolated exercises  compound exercises without lock out  Repetitive dynamic contraction o Running o Rowing o Weight training  high repetitions  super sets with the same muscle  Prolonged intense contractions coupled with short rest periods o Football o Handball o Weight training  multiple sets  multiple exercises for the same muscle  circuit training Types of Muscular Strength  Isometric contraction o Iron Cross (Gymnastics) o Tug-of-war o Spinal Erector during Squat, Deadlift, etc.  Dynamic contraction o Powerlifting (misnomer) o Weight training  Power contraction o Olympic style weightlifting o Shot put (Field event) o Plyometrics Most common causes of back injury are 1) Poorly conditioned muscles 2) Muscle imbalances in the trunk 3) Inflexibility in muscles crossing the shoulder and hips 4) Poor lifting technique 5) Poor motor control of the spinal musculature - Body composition is the result of fitness rather than a component of fitness - List of 10 physical skills 1) Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance—The ability of body systems to gather, process and deliver oxygen. 2) Stamina (muscular endurance)—The ability of the muscles to work over long periods against sub-maximal loads. 3) Strength—The ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply force. (Note: Often stated as maximal force.) 4) Flexibility—The ability to optimize the range of motion at a given joint. 5) Power—The ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply maximum force in minimum time. (Note: Power can be thought of as force x velocity or as the rate of doing work.) 6) Speed—Speed is the rate of change of position. 7) Coordination—The ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement. 8) Agility—The ability to minimize transition time from one movement pattern to another. 9) Balance—The ability to control the placement of the body’s centre of gravity in relation to its support base. 10)Accuracy—The ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity. - Cardiovascular disease (CVD or CHD) is the leading cause of death in North America - Metabolic syndrome (also known as syndrome X) is fast becoming a major health concern in our society. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of health disorders that increase the risk of developing CVD, stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes. - Having metabolic syndrome means you have several disorders related to your metabolism at the same time, including the following:  Obesity, particularly large amounts of deep abdominal fat content (“apple shape”).  Elevated blood pressure.  Elevated levels of blood fat (triglycerides) and low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).  Resistance to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar and many other metabolic functions. J-shaped relationship between the risk of an upper respiratory tract infection and the amount of intensity of exercise - exercise stress that is excessively high can reduce the effectiveness of the body’s immune system - in an epidemiological study, we compare the health of populations as they present themselves without any manipulation - correlation is not causation We can only have confidence in the cause-and-effect nature of results from epidemiological studies if the below criteria are satisfied: 1) the association between exercise and health must be repeatable(reliable) - evidences have to be proved from numerous of studies and not just one 2) the association between exercise and health must be strong - the relative risk associated with the behavior must be large 3) the association between exercise and health must be logical - logical explanation for the association 4) other obvious factors (variables) must be shown not to be the cause of the association - also study other health-related behaviors, such as diet  Conjecture—A conclusion deduced by surmise or guesswork or a belief without sufficient evidence for proof.  Hypot
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