- Lack of fitness affect the levels of hormones in a body, the blood lipid (fat) profile, your body
composition, and so on
- The genotype describes the genetic constitution of an individual
- The phenotype of an individual organism describes one of its measureable traits or characteristics
- Exp of phenotype: blue eyes, aggressive behavior
- Phenotype affected by genes, environmental factors
Genotype + Environment Phenotype
- Fitness level is a phenotype that is influenced by both an individual’s genetics and his/her environment
- Researchers argue that people are programmed (genotype) to be active and it is common for disease to
occur (phenotype) in those who live sedentary lives (environment)
- Epigenetics: the study of heritable changes in phenotype (gene expression) caused by mechanisms
other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
- Genes can get “turned on” and “turned off” by the environment humans encounter and this can be
passed on to future generations
- Physical activities is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue,
and with the ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies
- Fitness professionals and academics generally agree on the following components of physical fitness:
Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance
Health Related Performance Related
Body Composition Power
Cardiovascular Endurance Speed & Quickness
Muscular Strength Agility
Muscular Endurance Balance
Flexibility Motor Skill
Strength, Power, Speed, etc.
Static strength is the force that can be held in one place (force)
Static strength = Force
Strength is the weight that can be moved through a distance (work), or the ability of muscle to generate
force against a resistance Strength = Force x Distance
Example: competitive powerlifting (a misnomer)
Power is the product of a force and the speed (power). Power can be expressed by the work achieved in a
unit time (asymptotic). Power is a combination of strength and speed.
Power = Force x Distance / Time
Example: Olympic style weightlifting (strength dominated power), shot-put or jump (speed dominated
Speed is the distance traveled per unit time without regard to direction (speed)
Speed = Distance / Time
Example: sprinting, running
Velocity is the speed and direction of an entity (velocity)
Velocity = Speed and direction
Muscular Endurance = ability to perform repetitive or sustained muscular contractions against some
resistance for and extended period of time.
Types of Muscular Endurance
o Mountain climbing
o Isometric contraction
o Weight training
very slow contraction
compound exercises without lock out
Repetitive dynamic contraction
o Weight training
super sets with the same muscle
Prolonged intense contractions coupled with short rest periods
o Weight training
multiple exercises for the same muscle
Types of Muscular Strength Isometric contraction
o Iron Cross (Gymnastics)
o Spinal Erector during Squat, Deadlift, etc.
o Powerlifting (misnomer)
o Weight training
o Olympic style weightlifting
o Shot put (Field event)
Most common causes of back injury are
1) Poorly conditioned muscles
2) Muscle imbalances in the trunk
3) Inflexibility in muscles crossing the shoulder and hips
4) Poor lifting technique
5) Poor motor control of the spinal musculature
- Body composition is the result of fitness rather than a component of fitness
- List of 10 physical skills
1) Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance—The ability of body systems to gather,
process and deliver oxygen.
2) Stamina (muscular endurance)—The ability of the muscles to work over long periods
against sub-maximal loads.
3) Strength—The ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply
force. (Note: Often stated as maximal force.)
4) Flexibility—The ability to optimize the range of motion at a given joint.
5) Power—The ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply
maximum force in minimum time. (Note: Power can be thought of as force x velocity
or as the rate of doing work.)
6) Speed—Speed is the rate of change of position.
7) Coordination—The ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a
singular distinct movement.
8) Agility—The ability to minimize transition time from one movement pattern to
9) Balance—The ability to control the placement of the body’s centre of gravity in
relation to its support base.
10)Accuracy—The ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given
intensity. - Cardiovascular disease (CVD or CHD) is the leading cause of death in North America
- Metabolic syndrome (also known as syndrome X) is fast becoming a major health concern in our
society. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of health disorders that increase the risk of developing
CVD, stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
- Having metabolic syndrome means you have several disorders related to your metabolism at the same
time, including the following:
Obesity, particularly large amounts of deep abdominal fat content (“apple shape”).
Elevated blood pressure.
Elevated levels of blood fat (triglycerides) and low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).
Resistance to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar and many other metabolic functions.
J-shaped relationship between the risk of an upper respiratory tract infection and the amount of
intensity of exercise
- exercise stress that is excessively high can reduce the effectiveness of the body’s immune system
- in an epidemiological study, we compare the health of populations as they present themselves without
- correlation is not causation We can only have confidence in the cause-and-effect nature of results from epidemiological studies if the
below criteria are satisfied:
1) the association between exercise and health must be repeatable(reliable)
- evidences have to be proved from numerous of studies and not just one
2) the association between exercise and health must be strong
- the relative risk associated with the behavior must be large
3) the association between exercise and health must be logical
- logical explanation for the association
4) other obvious factors (variables) must be shown not to be the cause of the association
- also study other health-related behaviors, such as diet
Conjecture—A conclusion deduced by surmise or guesswork or a belief without sufficient evidence