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Lecture 1

BPK 143 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Anti-Gravity, Erector Spinae Muscles, Motor Unit


Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Professor
Tony Leyland
Lecture
1

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Chapter4:
1.Listfivebenefitsofresistancetraining.
Increasein:MuscularstrengthMuscularenduranceStrengthofbonesTensile
strengthofligamentsandtendonsThicknessofcartilageMusclemass(hypertrophy)
Stamina(durationofeffortbeforeexhaustion)
2.Listsomebenefitsandsomedisadvantagesofresistancetraining.Decreasein:Bodyfat
StressandtensionRestingheartrate(withendurance/circuittraining)Helpsto:Prevent
injuriesRehabilitateinjuriesImprovecardiorespiratoryfunction
3.Definemuscularpower.Theabilitytoproduceforcequickly
4.Distinguishbetweenmuscularstrengthandmuscularendurance.Muscularstrength:the
greatestamountofforcethatamuscleormusclegroupcanproduceinasinglemaximaleffort
Muscularendurance:theabilityofamusclegrouptoperformrepeatedcontractionsagainsta
lightloadforanextendedoftime5.Distinguishbetweenisokinetic,isotonicandisometric
contractions.IsometriccontractionMuscularcontractionwithnochangeinlengthofthe
muscleIsotomiccontractionAmuscularcontractionwherethetension(force)inthemuscleis
constrantIsokineticcontractionAcontractionwherethemuscleshortensorlengthensata
constantvelocity6.Definethetermsagonistandantagonist.Agonist—Amusclethatcausesthe
motionoftheexercise.Sothebicepsisanagonistinthebicepscurl.Antagonist—Amusclethat
canmovethejointoppositetothemovementproducedbytheagonist.Thetricepsisthe
antagonistforthebicepscurl.7.Whatisabiarticulatemuscle?Amusclethatcrossestwojoints
8.WhatarethecharacteristicsofFOGfibres?9.Comparethecharacteristicsoffasttwitch
motorunitsversusslowtwitchmotorunitFTmotorunitsonlyhaveFTfibres,produceabout
10%moreforceperunitofcrosssectionalareathanSTfibres,andcontractionandtension
developmentaretwotothreetimesfasterSTmotorunitsonlyhaveSTfibres,areadaptedfor
prolongedworkandareusedextensivelyforaerobicactivitieswherefatigueresistantproperties
areessential,containlargeconcentrationofmyoglobin10.Whichskeletalmusclefibretypeis
bestsuitedforbeingusedinenduranceeventssuchastherunning5,000meterrace?Explain.
TypeI,itisaSTfibresthatadaptedforprolongedworkandareusedextensivelyforaerobic
activities.Theycontainlargeconcentrationofmyoglobin,anironcontainingproteinthat
reversiblybindswithoxygenmoleculesandisstoredwithinskeletalmuscle,resultinginhigher
aerobiccapacity11.Whichskeletalmusclefibretypeisbestsuitedforbeingusedinsprintand
shortdurancepowereventssuchasthe100metersprintandthrowing?Explain.TypeIIx.FT
fibresproduce10%moreforceunitofcrosssectionalareathanSTfibres,andcontractionand
tensiondevelopmentaretwotothreetimesfaster.Theygenerateenergyrapidlyforquick,
forcefulcontractions.12.Nametwomusclesthatarepartoftheantigravitymusculature.Soleus,
quadriceps,glueteusmaximus,abdominals,anderectorspinae13.Whattwoneuralfactors
influencemuscleforceproduction?14.Describethemechanismsthatawholemuscleusesto
varytheforceofcontractionfromslighttomaximal.Lengthtensionrelationship:proteinsin
musclemustoverlapandattachtoeachotherinordertogenerateforce,knownasthesliding
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