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Lecture 1

BPK 143 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Aerobic Conditioning, Stairmaster, Epigenetics

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

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Part 1
An Evolutionary Framework for Fitness
-Genotype + Environment → Phenotype
Genotype (genetic breakdown, makeup)
Environment (what you’re exposed to)
Phenotype (how those two combine to create what you are) - if you eat poorly and don’t
exercise, you will reflect that despite your genetics
Exercise Normalizes Gene Expression
-Our ancestors were obligated to exercise (hunting and gathering), so we are adapted to
-Those who exercise are more likely to have normal phenotype
-No evidence to show we have adapted to be sedentary
-Close to 100% of biologic existence of humans have adapted to exercise
-Stress makes us want to get up and move because we are by nature hunters and gatherers
-Rest is important
-Your genes are not your fate
-Exercise will turn some genes on and off
-Your genes are like a computer, you get to choose what programs what you run on it
Epigenetics: Study of inherited changes in the phenotype (gene expression) caused by
mechanisms other than the changes in the DNA sequence
-These changes may remain for remainder of the cells life (cell division) and may last for several
-epigeno is the software you run on your computer (genes)
Although our environment is much less physically demanding than our ancestors, we can up the
intensity for a shorter period of time to simulate the experience and still get the required
What is fitness?
-There is no one type of fitness
-Runners have developed hips and thighs, cyclists have stronger quadracepts. Runners would
be poor weight lifters, weight lifters would be poor runners
-Fitness is only one aspect of health
Health Related
-Body Composition
-Cardiovascular Endurace
-Muscular Strength
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