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Lecture

BPK 306 Lecture Notes - Phospholamban, Sodium-Calcium Exchanger, Adrenal Gland

4 pages40 viewsFall 2009

Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 306
Professor
Mike Walsh

Page:
of 4
IV. ARTERIOLES AND CONTROL OF RESISTANCE
A. Local Factors:
oEndothelial Cells
EDRF = NO
Endothelium SM cGMP produces PKG
PKG = vasodilation
oPhosphorylates:
Phospholamban
L-type channels
Ca++ ATPase
NCX
K+ channel
oEndothelin
Fxns:
Inhibits NO
Contraction of SM
Hypertrophy of SM
IP3
Arteriosclerosis
oEndothelial-derived Hyperpolarization Factor
K+ channel in SM
L-type Ca++ channel
oMyogenic Response Autoregulation (fig. 18-22)
Stretch sensitive nonspecific cation channels of SM??
oMetabolites
Adenosine
K+
PCO2
Decreased PO2
RESULT = decr [Ca++]i
Active hyperemia, ischemia
B. Neural Factors:
oSNS
Alpha-adrenergic stimulation of phospholipase C
Beta2-adrenergic stimulation = vasodilation
Adrenaline and noradrenaline
oPNS
NO production
Smaller influence than SNS
C. Endocrine Factors:
oCatecholamines
SNS, adrenal gland
Adrenaline, Epinephrine
Noradrenaline, norepinephrine
oAngiotensin II
SNS/low kidney pressure/low Na renin converts
angiotensinogen angiontensin I ACE angiotensin II
Vasoconstriction raise BP
V. CAPILLARIES
A. Anatomy:
a. Diameter = 5-10 um
b. 10 billion in a body
c. Density: brain > striated muscle > liver and bone marrow
d. Between 10 and 100 caps per arteriole
B. Flow Through a Capillary Bed
a. AV shunts
b. Vasomotor tone
c. Precap sphincter diameter
d. Can switch direction
C. Exchange
a. Diffusion
i. J = -DA x dC/dX
ii. Flow limited (solubility) vs. Diffusion limited (distance)
b. Filtration
i. Hydrostatic pressure
ii. Osmosis
iii. Colloid osmotic pressure or plasma oncotic pressure
1. water drawn into caps from interstitial space
iv. Starling’s Law:
1. Qf = k[(Pc + πi) – (Pi + πp)]
or NDF = (Pc – Pi) + ∂(πp – πi)
a. Qf>0 filtration
b. Qf<0 reabsorption
v. Incr arterial pressure, venous pressure, and venous resistance
increases hydrostatic pressure
vi. Decr arterial pressure, venous pressure, and increase arterial
resistance decr hydrostatic pressure
vii. Hypertension and Hemorrhage.
c. Pinocytosis
i. Nondiffusible molec transport
ii. Invaginations
VI. LYMPHATICS
(*10L of lymphatic fluid total)
(2L per day back into veins)
A. Fluid Balance
a. Hydrostatic pressure
b. Internal jugular veins
c. Flow is caused by:
i. Negative thorax pressure during inspiration
ii. Skeletal muscular contractions
iii. One way valves
d. SM layer aids return to veins
B. Immunity
a. Nodes containing leukocytes
C. Lipid Support
a. Collect large lipids from digestive system. Transport them to blood
VII. VEINS
Holds 70% of blood
Greater volumes
More compliant (20-30x)
VR = (Pmc – Pra)/RVR
Pmc = static pressure of vascular system. ABOUT 7 mmHg!!!

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