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Respiratory System Part 1

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 306
Mike Walsh

Respiratory System #1 Introduction: • Primary fxn of pulmonary system: o Gas exchange (O2 uptake and CO2 removal @ appropriate fxning rates) • Body enhances RATE gas exchange • Study table of abbreviations I. PULMONARY STRUCTURE AND FXN A. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Consists of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs • Trachea o Higher order bronchi o Almost completely surrounded by rings of cartilage. Cartilage helps keep larger airways open o As bronchi gets smaller, cartilage gradually replaced by SM. SM enables constriction and dilation of airway opening o Manipulate diameter of airways alters airway resistance, and how much each lung area is ventilated • Fick’s Law of Diffusion: o Diffusion rate = A*D*(P1 – P2)/T o D proportional to solubility/sqrt(molecular weight) • Bronchial system o Surface area enhancement:  Designed to enhance surface area for diffusion  About 23 bifurcations from trachea to alveoli  Bronchi – primary, secondary, tertiary bronchi  terminal and respiratory bronchioles  alveolar ducts  alveoli  300 million alveoli = 1 tennis court of SA. Enhances rate of gas diffusion  Each alveolus enveloped by a bed of capillaries = incr SA  80% alveolar wall available for gas exchange when all caps are open  Caps are 10 um diameter  Perfect for gas exchange  Only one RBC can fit through at a time  O2 diffusion distance minimized o Thickness Reduction:  Alveoli is 1 layer of epithelial tissue thick  Maximizes gas exchange rate o Alveoli first occurs at about bifurcation 17, as buds on bronchioles. Marks beginning of respiration zone. Section, prior is conduction zone. o
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