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KIN 325-Unit 1 Study Objectives

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 325
Josephine Anthony

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KIN 325-Unit 1-Anatomical Terminology and Organization of Tissues
1. List and describe the standard anatomical position.
-in this position, the person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward
-the palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body
-right and left refer to those sides belonging to the person being viewed
-divisions of the body:
-axial region
-the head
-the neck
-trunk region
-appendicular region
-upper limb (shoulder to palm)
-lower limb (pelvis to feet)
2. List and describe the anatomical planes of the human body.
-frontal plane: frontal section through the torso
-divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
-transverse plane: transverse section through the torso
-runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior & inferior parts
-cross sections
-median (midsagittal) plane: median section
-sagittal planes divide the body into right & left parts
3. Explain each of the directional terms used to describe structural features of the
human body.
-superior (cranial): toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
ex: the head is superior to the abdomen
-inferior (caudal): away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the
body; below
ex: the navel is inferior to the chin
-anterior (ventral): toward or at the front of the body; in front of
ex: the breastbone is anterior to the spine
-posterior (dorsal): toward or at the back of the body; behind
ex: the heart is posterior to the breastbone
-medial: toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
ex: the heart is medial to the arm
-lateral: away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
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ex: the arms are lateral to the chest
-proximal: closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the
body trunk
ex: the elbow is proximal to the wrist
-distal: farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the
body trunk
ex: the knee is distal to the thigh
-superficial (external): toward or at the body surface
ex: the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
-deep (internal): away from the body surface; more internal
ex: the lungs are deep to the skin
-ipsilateral: on the same side
ex: the right hand and right foot are ipsilateral
-contralateral: on opposite sides
ex: the right hand and left foot are contralateral
4. Describe the general structural and functional characteristics of connective
-basic organization of connective tissues: cells are separated by an abundant
extracellular matrix. The matrix consists of fibrous and gel-like ground substance
(except in blood tissue)
-relatively few cells, lots of extracellular matrix: cells are separated from one another by
a large amount of extracellular material called the extracellular matrix; different from
epithelial tissue, whose cells crowd closely together
-extracellular matrix composed of ground substance and fibers: the extracellular matrix
is produce by the cells of the connective tissue; composed of some type of ground
substance embedded with protein fibers
-ground substance: mainly a soft, gel-like substance that holds tissue fluid; in
bone it is hard b/c it is calcified by inorganic calcium salts
-fibrous portion: provides support for the connective tissus; collagen fibers,
reticular fibers, and elastic fibers
-embryonic origin: all connective tissues originated from the embryonic tissue called
5. List and explain the functions of the three types of fibrous connective tissue.
-cells: chondrocytes, chondroblasts found in growing cartilage
-matrix: gel-like ground substance; collagen fibers, elastic fibers in some
-features: resists compression b/c of the large amounts of water held in the
-function: cushions and supports body structures
-bone tissue:
-cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts
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