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Lecture

BUS 272 Lecture Notes - Belongingness, Procedural Justice, Absenteeism


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Graeme Coetzer

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Self-concept, social norms, and past
experience
Drives and
Emotions Needs Decisions
and Behavior
Self-
actualizatio
n
Esteem
Belongingness
Safety
Physiological
Chapter 5
Foundation of Employee Motivation
Motivation
- Great Little Box Company motivates its employees through goal setting, fair pay, and
recognition, resulting in a highly engaged workforce
- The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of
voluntary behavior
- Exerting particular effort level (intensity), for a certain amount of time (persistence),
toward a particular goal (direction)
Employee Engagement
- Individuals emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, particularly a focused, intense,
persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals
- Emotional involvement in, commitment to, and satisfaction with the work
- High absorption in the work the experience of focusing intensely on the task with
limited awareness of events beyond that work
- High self-efficacy: believe you have the ability, role clarity, and resources to get the job
done
Drives and Needs
- Drives (primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives)
o Hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an
internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals
o Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions
- Needs
o Goal-directed forces
that people experience
o Drive-generated
emotions directed
toward goals
o Goals formed by self-
concept, social norms, and
experience
Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory
- Seven categories five in a hierarchy
capture most needs
- Lowest unmet need is strongest. When
satisfied, next higher need becomes
primary motivator.
Need to
know
Need for
beauty

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- Self-actualization: a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it
when satisfied (need for self-fulfillment , realization of ones potential)
Maslows Contribution to the Motivation Theory
- Holistic perspective
o Integrative view of needs
- Humanistic perspective
o Influence of social dynamics, not just instinct
- Positive perspective
o Pay attention to strengths, not just deficiencies
Whats Wrong the Needs Hierarchy Models?
- Maslows theory lacks empirical support
o People have different hierarchies
o Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated
- Hierarchy models wrongly assume that everyone have the same (universal) needs
hierarchy
- Instead, need hierarchies are shaped by persons own values and self-concept
Learned Needs Theory
- Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past
experience
- Needs can be learned by strengthening through reinforcement, learning and social
conditions
- McClelland examined three learned needs:
o Need for achievement (nAch)
Need to reach goals, take responsibility
Want reasonably challenging goals
o Need for affiliation (nAff)
Desire to seek approval, conform to others wishes, avoid conflict and
confrontation
Effective executives have lower need for social approval
o Need for power (nPow)
Desire to control ones environment
Personalized power
Individuals use it to advance personal interests, and wear their
power as a status symbol
Socialized power
Desire power as a means to help others
Effective leaders should have a high need.
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Four-Drive Theory
- Drive to acquire
o Drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and experiences
o Foundation of competition and the basis of our need for esteem
o Insatiable because the purpose of human motivation is to achieve a higher
position
- Drive to bond
o Drive to form relationships and social commitments
o Motivates people to cooperate
o Explain why people who lack social contact are more prone to serious health
problems
- Drive to learn
o Drive to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information
o Related to the higher-order needs of growth and self-actualization described
earlier
- Drive to defend
o Need to protect ourselves
o Reactive (not proactive) drive
o Creates a fight-or-flight response in the face of personal danger
Four Drives Affect Motivation
- Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming
information
- Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention
- Mental skill set relies on social norms, personal values, and experience to transform
drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort
Four Drive Theory of Motivation
- Social norms, personal values, and past experience transform drive-based emotions into
goal-directed choice and effort
Evaluating Four-Drive Theory
- Explains why needs vary from one person to the next, but avoids the assumption that
everyone have the same needs hierarchy
- Satisfied two of Maslows criteria: holistic and humanistic
- Provides a much clearer understanding of the role of emotional intelligence in employee
motivation and behavior
Implications of Four Drive Theory
- Provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill all four drives
o Employees continually seek fulfillment of drives
o Avoid having conditions support one drive more than others
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