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Lecture 4

BUS 272 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Elton Mayo, Hawthorne Effect, Western Electric

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

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Historical Roots
Scientific Management
oFrederick Taylor: how to be more efficient
oTime-motion studies: how long it takes to make a specific action and
what is the most efficient way to do it? Made studies for companies
oManufacturing industries still do it
o“People extensions of the machine”
oMotivated by money
oEfficiency: take off the broken part and put new part so we always
bring other people
Hawthorne Studies (80s)
oElton Mayo: The environment matters too (external environment fill
affect how people perform)
oWestern Electric Plant: Put workers in room and change stimuli
1. Dim lights (darker): measured performance and went up
2. Dim it even more: went up again, even more
Being watched to worked harder, higher level of
Were being treated like they meant something not like
Taylor  birth of OB (motivated by something other
than money)
oImportance of psychological factors
What is Motivation?
The intensity (how hard they work), direction (where they focus their effort),
and persistence (how long) of effort a person shows in reaching a goal
McGregor’s View of Human Beings
Depends on the circumstances and not necessary the people
Theory X
oThe assumption that employees that dislike work are lazy, dislike
responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
oHave to motivated by money or threatened
oEx.: Cleaning dishes
Theory Y
oThe assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek
responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
oDoing what you like (motivated on your own)
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Needs Theories of Motivation
Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Herzberg’s hygiene factors
McClelland’s theory of needs
Problem: we don’t go to another step until the previous is met
For some people, social needs are really important or more than safety
Or working on a couple of needs at the same time! (ex.: working so safety but also
achieving at university etc)
Needs are operating simultaneously
oA person’s internal desire to do something
Interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction
oMotivation that comes from outside the person
Pay, bonuses, recognition, and other tangible rewards
Both important but only one is a real motivator.
Hygiene factor: basic level, absence of these are necessary (not a motivator)
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