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Chapter 5 on Foundations of Employee Motivation.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 5 Foundation of Employee Motivation Motivation - Great Little Box Company motivates its employees through goal setting, fair pay, and recognition, resulting in a highly engaged workforce - The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior - Exerting particular effort level (intensity), for a certain amount of time (persistence), toward a particular goal (direction) Employee Engagement - Individual’s emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals - Emotional involvement in, commitment to, and satisfaction with the work - High absorption in the work – the experience of focusing intensely on the task with limited awareness of events beyond that work - High self-efficacy: believe you have the ability, role clarity, and resources to get the job done Drives and Needs - Drives (primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) o Hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals o Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions - Needs o Goal-directed forces Self-concept, social norms, and past experience that people experience o Drive-generated emotions directed Drives and Needs Decisions toward goals Emotions and Behavior o Goals formed by self- Self- concept, social norms, and actualizatio n experience Esteem Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory - Seven categories – five in a hierarchy – Need to Belongingness capture most needs know - Lowest unmet need is strongest. When Safety satisfied, next higher need becomes Need for beauty Physiological primary motivator. - Self-actualization: a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied (need for self-fulfillment , realization of one’s potential) Maslow’s Contribution to the Motivation Theory - Holistic perspective o Integrative view of needs - Humanistic perspective o Influence of social dynamics, not just instinct - Positive perspective o Pay attention to strengths, not just deficiencies What’s Wrong the Needs Hierarchy Models? - Maslow’s theory lacks empirical support o People have different hierarchies o Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated - Hierarchy models wrongly assume that everyone have the same (universal) needs hierarchy - Instead, need hierarchies are shaped by person’s own values and self-concept Learned Needs Theory - Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past experience - Needs can be “learned” by strengthening through reinforcement, learning and social conditions - McClelland examined three “learned” needs: o Need for achievement (nAch)  Need to reach goals, take responsibility  Want reasonably challenging goals o Need for affiliation (nAff)  Desire to seek approval, conform to others wishes, avoid conflict and confrontation  Effective executives have lower need for social approval o Need for power (nPow)  Desire to control one’s environment  Personalized power  Individuals use it to advance personal interests, and wear their power as a status symbol  Socialized power  Desire power as a means to help others  Effective leaders should have a high need. Four-Drive Theory - Drive to acquire o Drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and experiences o Foundation of competition and the basis of our need for esteem o Insatiable because the purpose of human motivation is to achieve a higher position - Drive to bond o Drive to form relationships and social commitments o Motivates people to cooperate o Explain why people who lack social contact are more prone to serious health problems - Drive to learn o Drive to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information o Related to the higher-order needs of growth and self-actualization described earlier - Drive to defend o Need to protect ourselves o Reactive (not proactive) drive o Creates a “fight-or-flight” response in the face of personal danger Four Drives Affect Motivation - Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming information - Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention - Mental skill set relies on social norms, personal values, and experience to transform drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort Four Drive Theory of Motivation - Social norms, personal values, and past experience transform drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort Evaluating Four-Drive Theory - Explains why needs vary from one person to the next, but avoids the assumption that everyone have the same needs hierarchy - Satisfied two of Maslow’s criteria: holistic and humanistic - Provides a much clearer understanding of the role of emotional intelligence in employee motivation and behavior Implications of Four Drive Theory - Provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill all four drives o Employees continually seek fulfillment of drives o Avoid having conditions support one drive more than others Expectancy Theory of Motivation Outcomes Effort Performance and Valences - Increasing E (Effort) to P (Performance) Expectancies o Assuring employees they have competencies o Person-job matching o Provide role clarification and sufficient resources o Behavioral modelling - Increasing P (Performance) to O (Outcomes and Valences) Expectancies o Measure performance accurately o More rewards for good performance o Explain how rewards are linked to performance - Increasing outcome valences o Valences is the antici
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