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Chapter 8 on Team Dynamics.docx
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Department
Business Administration
Course
BUS 272
Professor
Graeme Coetzer
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8 Team Dynamics Teams and Informal Groups - Groups of two or more people o Interact and influence each other o Mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives o Perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization - Informal groups o Have little or no interdependence o Exist for the benefit of their members o Minimize employee stress (supporting each other) Types of Teams in Organizations - Departmental teams o Consist of employees who have similar skills o Located in the same unit of a functional structure o Minimal task interdependence - Production/ service/ leadership teams o Multiskilled teams who collectively produce a common product o Have tight interactive interdependence - Self-directed teams o Organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks o Have substantial autonomy over the execution - Advisory teams o Provide recommendations to decision makers - Task force teams o Multiskilled, temporary teams whose assignment is to solve a problem, realize an opportunity, or design a product or service. - Skunkworks o Located away from the organization o Relatively free of its hierarchy o Initiated by an entrepreneurial team leader who borrow people and resources to design a product or service - Virtual teams o Members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries o Linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks - Communities of practice (informal groups) o Bound together by shared expertise and passion for an interest or activity Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams - Advantages o Have better decisions o Develop better product and services o Create a more engaged workforce o Quickly share information and coordinate tasks o Provide superior customer service o Highly motivated - Disadvantages o Process losses  Resources (time and energy) expended toward team development and maintenance rather than the task  More efficient for an individual to work out an issue alone than to resolve differences of opinion with other people o Brook’s law (mythical man-month)  The principle that adding more people to a late software project only makes It later o Social loafing  The problem that occurs when people exert less effort when working in teams when working alone Team Effectiveness Model •Rewards •Task •Communication characteristics •Org. structure •Team size •Org. leadership •Team •Physical space composition Organizational Team and Team Environment Design Team Processes Team Effectiveness •Team •Accomplish tasks development •Satisfy member •Team norms needs •Team cohesion •Maintain team •Team trust survival - Organizational and team environment o All conditions beyond the team’s boundaries that influence its effectiveness o Organizational structure  Increases interaction and interdependence among team members  Reduces interaction with people outside the team - Team design elements o Task characteristics  Task interdependence  The extent to which team members must share materials, information, or expertise in order to perform their jobs  The higher the level of task interdependence, the greater the need to organize into teams  Pooled interdependence (lowest level) o When an employee or work unit shares a common resource with other employees or work units  Sequential interdependence (higher level) o The output of one person becomes the direct input for another person or suit o Team members are organized in an assembly line  Reciprocal interdependence (highest level) o Work output is exchanged back and forth among individuals o Team size  Should be large enough to provide the necessary competencies and perspectives to perform the work  Small enough to maintain efficient coordination and meaningful involvement of each member o Team composition  Team diversity  Benefits o Better at making decisions  See things from different angles  Have a broader pool of technical competencies o Provide better representation of the team’s constituents  Challenges o Take longer to become a high-performing teams o Susceptible to “fault lines” – may split into subgroups  Reduce team effectiveness Five C’s model Communicating •Share information freely, efficiently, Coordinating respectfully Comforting •Listen actively •Align work with •Show empathy others •Provide psych. •Keep team on track comfort •Build Confidence Cooperating Conflict Resolving •Share resources •Diagnose conflict •Accommodate others Team Member sources Competencies •Use best conflict handling style Team Processes - Team development o Developing team identity  The transition that individuals make from viewing the team as something “out there” to something
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