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Chapter 10 on Power and Influence in the Workplace.docx

6 Pages

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

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Chapter 10 Power and Influence in the Workplace Power - The capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others o Potential to change someone’s attitudes or behaviors, not actual use o Based on target’s perception that the power holder controls o Involves asymmetric dependence of one party on another party  Countervailing power – the capacity of a person, team, or organization to keep a more powerful person or group in the exchange relationship Power and Dependence Model of Power in Organizations 1. Sources of power o Legitimate  Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others  Based on job descriptions and mutual agreement  Legitimate power range (zone of indifference) is the set of behaviors that individuals are willing to engage in at the other person’s request  Varies across national and organizational cultures  Norm of reciprocity – legitimate power as a felt obligation to help others who helped you in the past  Occurs when people have the right to control the information that others receive o Reward  Ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove negative sanctions o Coercive  Ability to apply punishment  i.e. Peer pressure  Both power exist upward as well as downward in hierarchies o Expert  Originate from within the power holder, not from the position  The capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value  Coping with uncertainty  Organizations operate better in predictable environments  People gain power by using their expertise to o Prevent – the most effective strategy to prevent environmental change from occurring o Forecast – to predict environmental changes or variations o Absorb – gain power by absorbing or neutralizing the impact of environmental shifts as they occur. o Referent  Occurs when others identify with, like, or otherwise respect the person  Associated with charismatic leadership  A personal characteristic or special “gift” that serves as a form of interpersonal attraction and referent power over others 2. Contingencies of power o Substitutability (increasing nonsubstitutability)  Few/no alternatives to the resource  Increase nonsubstitutability by controlling the resource  Exclusive right perform medical procedures  Control over skilled labor  Exclusive knowledge to repair equipment  Differentiate resource from others o Centrality  Degree and nature of interdependence between powerholder and others  A function of:  How many others are affected by you  How quickly others are affected by you o Discretion  The freedom to exercise judgement  Rules limit discretion, limit power  A perception – acting as if you have discretion o Visibility  Make others aware of your presence – more face time, locate office near busy routes  Symbols communicate your power source  Educational diplomas  Clothing, etc. (stethoscope around neck) 3. Power over others Legitimate Power: Right to Control Information Flow - Wheel formation - All-channels formation - o This person has high information control (green) o These people individually have low information control (purple) Power and Influence through Social Networks - Social networks – people connected to each other through forms of interdependence - Generate power through social capital o Goodwill and resulting resources shared among members in a social network o Three power resources through social networks  Knowledge sharing  Visibility  Referent power Social Network Ties - Strong ties o Close-knit rel
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