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Chapter 11 on Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 11 Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace Conflict - The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party - Based on perceptions - Positive consequences o Better decisions (test logic, questions assumptions) o Improves responsiveness to external environment o Increases team cohesion (when conflict outside the team) - Negative consequences o Wastes time, energy, resources o Less information sharing, productivity o More organizational politics o More job dissatisfaction, turnover, stress o Weakens team cohesion (when conflict is within team) Emerging View: Constructive Versus Relationship Conflict - Constructive (task-oriented) conflict o Parties focus on the issue while maintaining respect for people having other points of view o Try to understand the logic and assumptions of each position o Have an upper limit to the intensity of any disagreement - Relationship (socioemotional) conflict o Parties focus on personal characteristics (not issues) as the source of conflict o Try to undermine each other’s worth/competence o Accompanied by strong negative emotions (drive to defend) Minimizing Relationship Conflict - Goal: encourage constructive conflict, minimize relationship conflict - Problem: relationship conflict often develops when engaging in constructive conflict - Three conditions that minimize relationship conflict during constructive conflict: o Emotional intelligence  Better able to regulate their emotions during debate  Reduces the risk of escalating perceptions of interpersonal hostility o Cohesive team  Allows each person to know about and anticipate the behaviors and emotions of their teammates  Produces a stronger social identity with the group o Supportive team norms  Different norms can produce various effect on making positive group emotions The Conflict Process Sources of Conflict Conflict Perceptionsand Emotions Incompatible goals Differentiation Manifest Conflict Interdependence Conflict Outcomes Scare resources Conflict style Decisions Ambiguous rules Positive Poor communication Overt behaviors •Better decisions •Responsive organization •Team cohesion Negative •Stree/low morale •Turnover •Politics •Lower performance Structural Sources of Conflict •Distorted information - Incompatible goals o One party’s goals perceived to interfere with other’s goals - Differentiation o Different values/beliefs o Explains cross-cultural and generational conflict - Interdependence o Conflict increases with interdependence o Parties more likely to interfere with each other - Scarce resources o Motivates competition for the resource - Ambiguous rules o Creates uncertainty, threatens goals o Without rules, people rely on politics - Communication problems o Increases stereotyping o Reduces motivation to communicate o Escalates conflict when arrogant Five Conflict Handling Styles High Forcing Problem-Solving Compromising Avoiding Yielding Assertivene Low Cooperativeness High Conflicting Handling Contingencies - Problem solving o Tries to find a solution that is beneficial for both parties (win-win orientation) o Information sharing is important because both parties collaborate to identify common group and potential solutions that satisfy everyone o Best when:  Interests are not perfectly opposing  Parties have trust/openness  Issues are complex o Problem: other party may use information to its advantage - Forcing o Tries to win the conflict at the other’s expense (win-lose orientation) o Relies on assertiveness to get one’s own way o Best when:  You have a deep conviction about your position  Quick resolution required  Other party would take advantage of cooperation o Problems: relationship conflict, long-term relations - Avoiding o Smooth over or avoid conflict situations altogether o Represents a low concern for both self and the other party o Best when:  Conflict is emotionally-charged (relationship conflict)  Conflict resolution cost is higher than benefits o Problems: doesn’t resolve conflict, frustration - Yielding o Involves giving in completely to the other side’s wishes o Making unilateral concessions and unconditional promises o Best when:  Other party has much more power  Issue is much less important to you than other party  Value/logic of your position is imperfect o Problems: increases other’s expectations; imperfect solution - Compromising
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