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BUS 272 Chapter 6.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Ron Velin

Chapter 6 – Groups and Teamwork Teams vs. Groups Groups: 2+ people with common relationship Teams: small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are held mutually accountable Four Types of Teams 1. Problem-Solving Teams - Groups of 5-12 employees from the same department - meet weekly for a few hours to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment -rarely given authority to implement ideas 2. Self-Managed Teams - Groups of 10-15 people - take on responsibilities of their former managers; given authority to implement ideas 3. Cross-Functional Teams - Employees from the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task (e.g. finance, accounting and marketing) Types of cross functional teams are: Task Force: temporary cross functional team Committee: group composed of members from different departments (more long term in nature) Skunkworks: cross functional teams that develop spontaneously to create new products or work on complex problems 4. Virtual Teams - Use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal/ only team that isn’t face to face; less satisfaction w/in group interaction process Roles Role: a set of expected behaviours of a person in a given position in a social unit Role Expectations: how others believe a person should act in a given situation Role Conflict: a situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent (different) role expectations; where complying with one role makes it difficult to comply with another Role Ambiguity: a person unclear about his or her role Role Overload: too much is expected of someone Role Underload: too little is expected of someone; that person feels that they are not contributing Norms Norms: acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members Norms have to do with issues such as: Performance: work ethic, work quality, levels of tardiness Appearance: dress codes, when to look busy, when to “goof off,” how to show loyalty SocialArrangement: how team members interact Allocation of resources: pay, assignments, tools and equipment How Norms Develop -explicit statements made by a group member -critical events in the groups history -primacy: initial patterns of behaviour -carry-over behaviour Why Norms are enforced -facilitate group survival -make behaviour predictable -minimize embarrassment -express central values -clarify the group’s identity Conformity Conformity: adjusting one’s behaviour to align with the norms of the group Reference Groups: these are important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong; want to conform to, to avoid being visibly different Two Models of Group Development 1. The Five Stage Model Describes the standardized sequence of stages groups pass through Stage 1: Forming -characterized by uncertainty and anxiety about the team’s purpose, structure and leadership. Complete when members think of themselves as part of a team Stage 2: Storming -characterized by intra-group conflict. E.g. individual differences and power struggles. Complete when hierarchy of leadership is clear Stage 3: Norming -characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness; strong sense of team identity. Complete when structure solidifies and expectations of behaviour are established Stage 4: Performing -when the group is fully functional. Complete when significant task progress is being made. Last state for “permanent” work groups and teams Stage 5: Adjourning -the final stage in group development for “temporary” groups, where attention is directed toward wrapping up activities rather than task performance Putting the Five-Stage Model in Perspective: -groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time -groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage -conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group, as long as its directed toward the task & not the group -context can matter: e.g. airline pilots can immedia
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