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BUS 272 Chapter 7.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Ron Velin

Chapter 7 – Communication The Communication Process Model Communication Terms include: Communication: the transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people Sender: establishes a message, encodes the message, and chooses the channel to send it Receiver: decodes the message, and provides feedback to the sender Encoding: converting a message to symbolic form Decoding: interpreting a sender’s message Message: what is communicated Channel: the medium through which a message travels Choosing Channels -Channels differ in their capacity to convey information Rich Channels have the ability to: -Handle multiple cues simultaneously -Facilitate rapid feedback -Be very personal E.g. Face to face communication is a rich channel Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering: the sender manipulates information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver Selective Perception: the receiver selectively sees and hears based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics Defensiveness: when individuals interpret a message as threatening, they often respond in ways that retard effective communication Information Overload: occurs when the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity Language: words mean different things to different people e.g. expressions like “what’s up” As well as communicating under stress this can be under control through: speaking clearly, being aware of the nonverbal part of communicating (e.g. proximity), as well as thinking carefully about who you state things Direction of Communication Downward: communication that flows from one level of a group to a lower level – e.g. managers to employees Upward: communication that flows to a higher level of a group – e.g. employees to manager (becomes increasingly difficult) Lateral: communication among members of the same work group, or individuals at the same level Networks Connections by which information flow: 1. Formal Networks – task related communications that follow the authority chain Chain: Moderate speed, high accuracy, moderate emergence of leader, moderate member satisfaction Wheel: Fast speed, high accuracy, high emergence of a leader, low member satisfaction All-Channel: Fast speed, moderate accuracy, no emergence of leader, high member satisfaction 2. The Grapevine – Word of mout
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