Chapter 4 and 5
- Intensity, direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal
Demonstration Debrief – Schedule of Reinforcements
1) Continuous reinforcements
- Reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated
- Activity dies down over time
2) Variable-ratio reinforcement
- Means that a reward is given at variable amounts of output
- Results in the highest performance with little extinction.
- Ie: Commissioned Sales
Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivators
1) Extrinsic Motivator
- Motivation that comes from outside the person
- Pay, bonuses and other tangible rewards
- Motivation may actually DECREASE when external rewards are attached to a task that was based on
2) Intrinsic Motivators
- Motivations that come from a person’s internal desire to do something.
- Due to interest, challenge or personal satisfaction
- Employees that are intrinsically motivated are the BEST but hard to make.
Need Theories of Motivation
1) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
a) Self-actualization – being the best that you can actualization
b) Esteem – self-esteem ,feeling good about Esteem
c) Social – Friends Social
d) Safety – Home
e) Physiological – food water Safety
2) Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
- Leads to satisfaction
B) Hygiene Factors
- Leads to dissatisfaction
To Motivate, use intrinsic factors
To avoid dissatisfaction, avoid poor extrinsic conditions
Herzberg: Dissatisfaction is not the opposite of satisfaction! Hygeine factors affect whether someone’s dissatisfied.
Motivators (largely intrinsic) affect whether someone’s satisfied. Chapter 4 and 5
Process Theories of Motivation
1) Expectancy Theory
- An employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he believes the following:
o Expectancy - That the effort will lead to good performance
o Instrumentality - That good performance will lead to organizational rewards (bonuses)
o Valence - That the rewards will satisfy his personal goals.
2) Goal Setting theory
- Setting goals will increase motivation
How does goal setting motivate?
1) Goals direct attention
2) Goals regulate effort
3) Goals increase persistence
4) Goals encourage the development of strategies and action plans
3) Equity Theory
- Comparing their job inputs and job output ratio with others
4) Cognitive Evaluation Theory
- Offering extrinsic rewards for effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend
to decrease the overall level of motivation of the person.
- Ie: Although a taxi driver expects to be paid for taking your best friend to the airport, you
do not expect your friend to pay you if you volunteer to drive to the airport. In fact, the
offer of pay might diminish your pleasure in doing a favor for your friend.
Extrinsic motivators reduce creativity and lateral thinking but are better when the job is
straightforward. For individuals who are not intrinsically motivated.
Money can strongly motivate people to achieve specific goals but we need to use it carefully
Beware of mismatch between rewards and goals
- It certainly helps some needs get met. BUT money is not all employees’ top priority. Many