BUS 272 Organizational Behavior
Chapter 11 Leadership
LEADING VS MANAGING
Managing is useful for stable, day-to-day situations.
Leading is useful for situations of change.
Leaders vs. managers. BUT managers are useful in situations of little change. Leaders
sometimes try to change things too much.
• Managing is similar to supervising. Useful for stable day-to-day situations.
• Leading is most useful for situations of change / instability. It focuses more attention on
big-picture ideas than details.
• Engages in day-to-day caretaker activities: Maintains and allocates resources
• Exhibits supervisory behaviour: Acts to make others maintain standard job behaviour
• Administers subsystems within organizations
• Asks how and when to engage in standard practice
• Acts within established culture of the organization
• Uses transactional influence: Induces compliance in manifest behaviour using rewards,
sanctions, and formal authority
• Relies on control strategies to get things done by subordinates
• Status Quo supporter and stabilizer
• Formulates long-term objectives for reforming the system: Plans strategy and tactics
• Exhibits leading behaviour: Acts to bring about change in others congruent with long-
• Innovates for the entire organization
• Asks what and why to change standard practice
• Creates vision and meaning for the organization
• Uses transformational influence: Induces change in values, attitudes, and behaviour
using personal examples and expertise
• Uses empowering strategies to make followers internalize values
• Status Quo challenger and change creator
WHAT MAKES A GREAT LEADER?
The inherent qualities of leaders. Eg personality, values, intelligence.
BUT this approach is too distant from what people do.
What leaders do.
BUT this approach doesn’t consider that different behaviours may be appropriate
in different situations.
3) The Situation
Matching behaviours to the situation
Generally the best approach to leadership theories. Most appropriate.
1 BUS 272 Organizational Behavior
Chapter 11 Leadership
Trait Theories: Are Leaders Different from Others?
Trait: characteristics of the person.
Six traits have been identified that are consistently associated with leadership:
1. Ambition and energy
2. The desire to lead
3. Honesty and integrity
6. Job-relevant knowledge
*Extroverts are more likely to becomes leaders but they’re not necessarily more effective
Behavioural Theories: Do Leaders Behave in Particular Ways?
Propose that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
The Managerial Grid
Matrix developed by Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s (Exhibit 11-4). This grid is
useful as a conceptual tool, but little empirical evidence exists to support it.
• Impoverished - Minimum effort required to keep your job. (Homer Simpson)
• Authority-obedience - minimize interference of human elements (emotions, etc) in
• Country club management - thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying
relationship needs. (kindergarden techer)
• Team management - Work is accomplished by committed people who have a ‘common
stake’ in the organization’s purpose. Includes trust and respect.
2 BUS 272 Organizational Behavior