1Advertising: The Image of Marketing
Types of advertising
Product advertising: message focuses on specific good or service.
Institutional advertising promotes the activities, personality, or point of view of an organization
or company. Corporate advertising promotes the company as a whole instead of the firm’s
Some institutional messages state an organization’s position on an issue to sway public opinion, a
strategy we call advocacy advertising.
Figure 11.1 types of advertising.
Public service advertisements (PSAs)
These messages promote not-for-profit organizations that serve society in some way, or they
champion an issue such as increasing literacy or discouraging drunk driving.
Retail and Local Advertising
Who Creates Advertising?
An advertising campaign is a coordinated, comprehensive plan that carries out promotion
objectives and results in a series of advertisements placed in various media over a period of time.
A limited-service agency provides one or more specialized services, such as media buying or
Full-service agency supplies most or all of the services a campaign requires, including research,
creation of ad copy and art, media selection, and production of the final messages.
Account management: Then account executive is the “soul” of the operation. This person
supervises the day-to-day activates on the account and is the primary liaison between the agency
and the client.
The account planner combines research the account strategy to act as the voice of the consumer
in creating effective advertising.
CREATIVE SERVICES: Creatives are the “heart” of the communication effort. These are the people
who actually dream u and produce the ads.
Research and marketing services: Researchers are the “brains” of the campaign. They collect and
analyze information that will help account executives develop a sensible strategy.
Media planning: The media planner is the “legs” of the campaign. She helps to determine which
communication vehicles are the most effective and recommends the most efficient means to
deliver the ad by deciding where, when, and how often it will appear.
User-Generated Advertising Content: do-It-Yourself Advertising and Crowdsourcing.
User-generated content(ugc), also known as consumer-generated content, includes the millions
of online consumer comments, opinions, advice, consumer-to-consumer discussions, reviews,
photos, images, videos, podcasts and webcasts, and product-related stories available to other
consumers through digital technology.
Marketers need to monitor UGC for two reasons. First, consumers are more likely to trust
messages from fellow consumers that what companies tell then.
Second, we’ve already seen in the last chapter how proliferate social media is; a person who
searches online for a company or product name is certain to access any number of blogs, forums, homegrown commercials, or online complaint sites that the product manufacturer had nothing
to do whit.
Converse allowed customers to send homemade commercials to its Web site, then ran several of
them on television.
DIY advertising offers several benefits. First, consumer-generated sport cost onl one-quarter to
one-third as much as professional TV and Internet ads.
Equally important, even to large companies with deep pocket, is the feedback on how consumers
see the brand and the chance to gather more creative ideas to tell the brand’s story.
Crowdsourcing is a practice in which firms outsource marketing activities to community of users;
to a crowd.
First, the agency shares a challenge with a large number of people who have varying degrees of
expertise. Whether motivated by money, competition, or obsession, individuals then submit their
solution to the problem.
Ethical Issues in Advertising
Advertising is manipulative: Advertising causes people to behave like robots and do things against
their will—make purchases they would not otherwise make were it not for the ads.
Advertising is deceptive and untruthful: an ad falsely represents the product and that consumers
believe the false information and act on it.
Corrective advertising, messages that clarify or qualify previous claims.
Puffery—claims of superiority that neither sponsor nor critics of the ads can prove are true or
Both advertisers and consumers generally accept puffery as a normal part of the advertising
This approach works to the firm’s advantage in the long run since it prevents consumers from
becoming overly cynical about the claims it makes.
Advertising is offensive and in bad taste: to respond to this criticism, we need to recognize that
what is offensive or in bad taste to one person may not be to another.
While advertisers seek to go the distance using humour, sex appeals, or fear appeals to get and
audience’s attention, most shy away from presenting messages that offend the very audience
they want to buy their products.
Advertising creates and perpetuates stereotypes: Some advertising critics assert that advertising
portrays certain groups of consumers in negative ways.
Advertising causes people to buy things they don’t really need.
2 Develop the advertising Campaign
Step 1: understand the Target Audience
Marketers often identify the target audience for an advertising campaign from research.
Researchers try to get inside the customer’s head to understand just how to create a message
that he will understand and to which he will respond.
Figure 11.2 steps to Develop an Advertising Campaign
Step 2: Establish Message and Budget Objectives
Advertising objectives should be consistent whit the overall communication plan. Both the
underlying message and its costs need to relate to what the marketer is trying to say about the
product and what the marketer is willing or able to spend. Thus, advertising objectives generally will include objectives for both the message and the budget.
Set Message Objective
What advertising can do is inform, persuade, and remind. Some advertisements and
informational—they aim to make the customer knowledgeable about features of the product or
how to use it.
Many ads simply aim to keep the name of the brand in front of the consumer—reminding
consumers that this brand is the one to choose then they look for a soft drink or a laundry
Set Budget Objectives
An objective of man firms is to allocate a percentage of the overall communication budget to
advertising, depending on how much and what type of advertising the company can afford. The
major approaches and techniques to setting overall promotional budgets.
Step 3: Create the Ads.
The creation of the advertising begins when an agency formulates a creative strategy which gives
the advertising creatives the direction and inspiration they need to begin the creative process.
Creative brief, a rough blueprint that guides but does not restrict the creative process. It provides
only the most relevant information and insights about the marketing situation, the advertising
objective, the competition, the advertising target and, most importantly, the message that the
advertising must deliver.
The role of the creative brief is to provide the spark that helps the ad agency come up with “the
big idea’” the visual and/ or verbal concept that deliver the message in an attention getting,
memorable, and relevant manner.
An advertising appeal is the central idea of the ad and the basis of the advertising messages. It is
the approach used to influence the consumer.
Information or rational appeals relate to consumers’ practical need for the product.
Informational appeals are based on a unique selling proposition (USO) that gives consumers a
clear, single-minded reason why the advertiser’s product is better than other products at solving
A USP strategy is effective if there is some clear product advantage that consumers can readily
identify and that is important to them.
Because consumers often buy product based on social or psychological needs, advertisers
frequently use emotional appeals instead where they try to pull our heartstrings rather than
make us think differently about a brand.
Well-established brands often use reminder advertising just to keep their name in people’s mind
or to be sure that consumers repurchase the product as necessary.
Sometimes advertisers use teaser or mystery ads to generate curiosity and interest in a
Execution format describes the basic structure of the message
Comparison: A comparative advertisement explicitly names one or more competitors.
Comparative ads can be very effective, but there is a risk of turning off consumers who don’t like
the negative tone.
This formats is best for brands that have a smaller share of the market and for firms that can focus on a specific feature that makes them superior to a major brand.
Demonstration: The ad shows a product “in action” to prove that it performs as claimed.
Demonstration advertising is most useful when consumers are unable to identify important
benefits except when they see the product in use.
Testimonial: states the product’s effectiveness. The use of celebrity endorsers is a common but
expensive strategy. Risky
Slice of life: A lifestyle format shows a person or persons attractive to the target market in an
appealing setting. The advertised product is “part of the scene,” implying that the person who
buys it will attain the lifestyle.
Tonality refers to the mood or attitude the message conveys.
Straightforward: Straightforward ads simply present the information to the audience in a clear
manner. Informative ads are frequently used in radio but less often in TV.
Humour: Humorous, witty, or outrageous ads can be an effective way to break through
May be offensive or stupid to another
The major benefit of humorous advertising is that it attracts consumers’ attention and leaves
them with a pleasant feeling.
Dramatic: like a play, presents a problem and a solution in a manner that is often exciting and
Romantic: present a romantic situation can be especially effective at getting consumers’ attention
and at selling product people associate with dating and mating.
Sexy: some ads appear to sell sex rather than products.
Ads such as there rely on sexuality to get consumers’ attention. Sex appeal ads are more likely to
be effective then there is a connection between the product and sex.
Apprehension/Fear: highlight the negation consequences of not using a product. Fear appeal ads
focus on physical harm, while others try to create concern for social harm or disapproval.
Creative Tactics and Techniques.
Animation and art: a creative decision is made to use art, illustration, or animation to achieve the
desired look of a print ad or TV commercial or to attract attention.
Celebrities: they just appear, in testimonials or endorsements. Using a celebrity is simply a casting
decision—a technique to make an ad more interesting or appealing.
Music, jingles, and slogans: Jingles are original words and music written specifically for
Slogans link the brand to simple linguistic device that is memorable.
Step 4: Pretest What the Ads Will Say
Pretesting, the research that goes on in the early stages of a campaign, centers on gathering basic
information that will help planners be sure they’ve accurately defined the product’s market,
consumers, and competitors.
This information comes from quantitative sources, such as surveys, and qualitative source, such
as focus groups.
Some researches use physiological measures to pretest ads.
Step 5: Choose the Media Type(s) and Media Schedule
Media planning is a problem-solving process that gets a message to a target audience in the most effective way.
Where to Say it: Traditional Mass Media
Television: reach so many people at once; it’s often the medium of choice for regional and
national companies. Advertising on a television network can be very expensive.
Radio: Radio One advantage of radio advertising is flexibility. Commercials can be changed quickly,
often on the spot by an announcer and a recording engineer.
Table11.1Pros and Cons of Media Vehicles.
Table11.1 Pros and Cons of media vehicles(continued)
Serious trouble as more people choose to get their news online.
Magazines: selective binding allows publishers to personalize their editions so that they can
include advertisements for local businesses, include special inserts.
Where to Say t: Digital Media
Digital media refers to any media that are digital rather than analogue.
Owned, Paid, AND Earned Media
Internet media can be classified as owned, pain, and earned. Owned media that includes web
site, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter accounts. The advantage of these owned media us that they
are effective means for companies to build relationship with their customers. Paid media includes
display ads, sponsorship, and paid key word searches. Consumers generally dislike the paid ads,
making their effectiveness less of a sure thing. Earned media refers to word of mouth(WOM) or
buzz using social media. The positive of earned media is that it is the most credible to consumers.
The challenge is that marketers have no control over earned media; they can only listen and
Web Site Advertising
Finely target customers. Web user registrations and cookies allow sites to track user preferences
and deliver ads based on previous Internet behavior. Can measure in real time how people
respond to specific online messages.
consumers participate in the advertising campaign
even become part of the action
Banners, rectangular graphics at the top or bottom of Web pages, were the first form of web
A pop-up ad is an advertisement that appears on the screen while a web page loads or after it
has loaded. Difficult to ignore. Many surfers find pop-ups a nuisance, so most Internet access
software provides an option that blocks all pop-ups.
Buttons are small banner-type advertisements that company can place anywhere on a page.
Search engines and directory listings are ways for people to find web page of interest to them.
Most search engines use some method to rank their search results and provide users with the
most relevant results first.
Web directory does not display lists of web page based on keywords but instead lists sites by
categories and subcategories.
E-mail advertising that transmits messages to very large numbers of inboxes simultaneously is
one of the easiest ways to communicate with consumers the same price whether you send ten
messages or ten thousand.
One downside to this platform is the explosion of spam. The industry defines this practice as sending unsolicited e-mail to five or more people not personally know to the sender.
Offer e-mail give surfers the opportunity to refuse unsolicited e-mail via junk e-mail blockers. This
permission marketing strategy gives the consumer the power to opt in or out.
Mobile advertising as “a form of advertising that is communicated to the consumer via a handset.
Video sharing: Check It Out on YouTube
Video sharing describes the strategy of uploading video recordings or vlogs to Internet sites such
as YouTube so that thousands or even millions of other internet users can check them out. There
videos are powerful way to break through the clutter.
For marketers, YouTube provides vast opportunities to build relationships with consumers.
The interactive video allows potential clients to view its work in an easily accessible way and is
especially appealing to companies that want a nontraditional marketing communications
Where to Say It: Branded Entertainment
Branded Entertainment a strategy where marketers integrate products into all sorts of venues
including movies, television shows, video games, novels, and even retail settings.
Where to Say It: Support Media
Support Media reach people who may not have been reached by mass media advertising, and
there platforms also support the messages traditional media delivers.
Includes outdoor advertising, transit advertising and other types of messages that reach people
in public place.
Enables the source to change the message at will
Many consumers dislike out-of-home media, especially outdoor advertising, because they feel it
Place-based media like the “airport channel” transmit messages to “captive” audiences in public
places, such as doctors’ offices and airport waiting areas.
RFID technology uses tiny sensors embedded in packages or store aisles to track customers as
When to say it: media scheduling
The planner then creates a media schedule that specifies the exact media the campaign will use
as well as well how often the message should appear.
The media schedule outlines the planner’s best estimate of which media will be most effective to
attain the advertising objective(s) and which specific media vehicle will do the most effective job.
Reach is the percentage of the target market that will be exposed to the media vehicle at least
once during a given period of time.
Important for widely used products the ate complex or those that