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Chapter7 selection.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 381
Natalie Zhao

Chapter7 selection The strategic importance of employee selection Selection: the process of choosing among individuals who have been recruited to fill existing or projected job openings. ****selection begins when a pool of applicants has submitted their resumes or completed application forms as a result of the recruiting process.**** **** The selection process has important strategic significance. More and more managers have realized that the quality of the company’s human resources is often the single most important factor in determining whether the firm is going to survive and be successful in reaching the objectives specified in its strategic plan. For example, if the organization is planning to expand internationally, language skills and international experience will become important selection criteria.**** ****when a poor selection decision is made and the individual selected for the job is not capable of acceptable performance in the job, strategic objectives will not be met. In addition, when a unsuccessful employee must be terminated, the recruitment and selection process must begin all over again, and the successor must be properly oriented and trained. The hidden costs are frequently even higher.**** Guidelines for avoiding legal problems - Ensuring that all selection criteria and strategies are based on the job description and the job specification - Adequately assessing the applicant’s ability to meet performance standards or expectations - Carefully scrutinizing all information supplied on application forms and resumes - Obtaining written authorization for reference checking from prospective employees, and checking references very carefully - Saving all records and information obtained about the applicant during each stage of the selection process - Rejecting applicants who make false statement on their application forms or resumes  The selection process Multiple-hurdle strategy: an approach to selection involving a series of successive steps or hurdles, only candidates clearing the hurdle are permitted to move on to the next step. ****the types of selection instruments and screening devices used are also not standardized across organizations. Even within a firm, the number and sequence of steps often vary with the type and level of the job as well as the source and method of recruitment.**** Step 1: preliminary applicant screening Initial applicant screening is generally performed by members of the HR department. Application forms and resumes are reviewed, and those candidates not meeting the essential selection criteria are eliminated first. Then, the remaining applications are examined and those candidates who most closely match the remaining job specifications are identified and given further consideration. Step2: selection testing ****selection testing is a common screening device used by approximately two thirds of Canadian organizations to assess specific job-related skills, as well as general intelligence, personality characteristics, mental abilities, interests, and preferences.****  The importance of reliability and validity ****tests and other selection techniques are only useful if they provide reliable and valid measures.****  Reliability Reliability: the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time; in other words, the degree of dependability, consistency, or stability of the measures used.  Validity Validity: the accuracy with which a predictor measures what it is intended to measure. Differential validity: confirmation that the selection tool accurately predicts the performance of all possible employee subgroups, including white males, women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, and aboriginal people. ****three types of validity are particularly relevant to selection: criterion-related, content, and construct validity.****  Criterion-related validity Criterion-related validity: the extent to which a selection tool predicts or significantly correlates with important elements of work behavior. ****demonstrating criterion-related validity requires proving that those who exhibit strong sales ability on a test or in an interview, for example, also have high sales on the job, and that those individuals who do poorly on the test or in the interview have poor sales results.****  Content validity Content validity: the extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform the job. ****asking a candidate for a secretarial position to demonstrate work processing skills, as required on the job has high content validity.****  Construct validity Construct validity: the extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait deemed necessary to perform the job successfully. ****as an example of poor construct validity, an accounting firm was selecting applicants for auditor positions based on a test for high extroversion when the job in fact required working alone with data. a test to select applicants with high introversion would have had higher construct validity and would have helped to avoid the high turnover rate the firm was experiencing.****  Tests of cognitive abilities  Intelligence (IQ) tests Intelligence (IQ) tests: tests that measure general intellectual abilities, such as verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, memory, numerical ability, speed of perception, spatial visualization, and word fluency.  Emotional intelligence tests Emotional intelligence (EI) tests: tests that measure ability to monitor one’s own emotions and the emotions of others and to use that knowledge to guide thoughts and actions. ****many people believe that EQ, which can be modified through conscious effort and practice, is actually a more important determinant of success than a high IQ.****  Specific cognitive abilities Aptitude tests: tests that measure an individual’s aptitude or potential to perform a job, provided he or she is given proper training.  Tests of motor and physical abilities ****there are many motor abilities that a firm might want to measure. These include finger dexterity, manual dexterity, speed of arm movement, and reaction time.**** ****tests of physical abilities may also be required. An FAE, which measures a whole series of physical abilities----ranging from lifting, to pulling and pushing, sitting, squatting, climbing, and carrying—is particularly useful for positions with a multitude of physical demands, such as firefighter and police offer.**** ****ensuring that physical abilities tests do not violate human rights legislation requires basing such test on job duties identified through job analysis and a physical demands analysis, ensuring that the tests duplicate the actual physical requirements for the job developing and imposing such tests honestly and in good faith, ensuring that those administering the tests are properly trained and administer the tests in a consistent manner, and ensuring that testing standards are objectively related to job performance.****  Measuring personality and interest ****a person’s mental and physical abilities are seldom sufficient to explain his or her job performance, other factors such as the person’s motivation and interpersonal skills are important too. Personality and interest inventories are sometimes used as predictors of such intangibles.**** Personality tests: instruments used to measure basic aspects of personality, such as introversion, stability, motivation, neurotic tendency, self-confidence, self sufficiency, and sociability. ****research studies confirm that personality tests can help companies to hire more effective workers.**** Interest inventories: tests that compare a candidate’s interests with those of people in various occupations. ****interest inventories have many uses. One is career planning, since people generally do better in jobs involving activities in which they have an interest. Another is selection, if the firm can select people whose interests are roughly the same as those of high-performing incumbents in the jobs for which it is hiring, the new employees are more likely to be successful.****  Achievement tests Achievement tests: tests used to measure knowledge and/or proficiency acquired through education, training, or experience. ****an achievement test is basically a measure of what a person has learned. Most of the tests taken in school are achievement tests.****  Work sampling ****work samples focus on measuring job performance directly and thus are among the best predictors of job performance.****  Management assessment centers Management assessment centre: a strategy used to assess candidates’ management potential that uses a combination of realistic exercises, management games, objective testing, presentations, and interviews.  Situational testing Situational testing: tests in which candidates are presented with hypothetical situations representative of the job for which they are applying and are evaluated on their responses.  Micro-assessment Micro-assessment: a series of verbal, paper-based, or computer-based questions and exercises that a candidate is required to complete, covering the range of activities required on the job for which he or she is applying. ****exercises are simple to de
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