traditionally mass communications research conceptualized as a circuit or loop
o criticized for its linearity, its concentration on the level of message exchange, and for
the lack of a structured conception of the different moments as a complex structure of
communication is not neutral
communication between the production elites and their audiences is systematically distorted
Hall incorporates the Notion of framework into the encoding decoding process
Mass media codes offer their readers social identities which some may adopt
as their own.
o But readers do not necessarily accept such codes.
o Where those involved in communicating do not share common codes
and social positions, decodings are likely to be different from the
encoder's intended meaning.
Stuart Hall stressed the role of social positioning in the interpretation of mass
media texts by different social groups
o three hypothetical interpretative codes or positions for the reader of a
dominant (or 'hegemonic') reading: the reader fully shares the
text's code and accepts and reproduces the preferred reading (a
reading which may not have been the result of any conscious
intention on the part of the author(s)) - in such a stance the code
seems 'natural' and 'transparent';