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CMNS 110 (282)
Lecture

CMNS110 Notes.docx

21 Pages
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Department
Communication
Course Code
CMNS 110
Professor
Gary Mc Carron

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Orality and Literacy 01/28/2014 Alphabets Social consciousness (how do these ideas change due to communication evolving) Walter Ong More straightforward Student of Marshall McLuhan How was the newspaper different from hieroglyphics Technological determinist The focus of morality Main interest was in the way that oral societies differ, and his specific emphasis was to study how the change from orality to literacy had significant social, cultural, and educational implications. Note taking allows us to privatized our thoughts etc Oral Performance Graduate students have to write a thesis then defend it orally, The performance part is much more appealing to people instead of print We can say that although the significance of contemporary occasions of orality may sometimes be ceremonial, they are not in any sense unimportant or merely incidental John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) Educated by his father at age 3 You have the right to write and say whatever you want but you do not have the right to put it in written words and so forth Mills emphasizes the emotion and engaged Rationality allows the reader to commit themselves to reading something We don’t have the same emotional power in written text over oral speech What is the difference between written text vs spoken “text” Repeating, rephrase in spoken (speech) Milman Parry Argues that Odyssey & Illiad were never written down Poems are thousands of line long… how do the people in the pre-illiterate world have such great memory ? Exosomatic technology Greeks memorized because they had to, we don’t memorize because we don’t have to. Illiad & Odyssey = are now hybrid texts Information pertaining to their origin and social history (reference the slides_ Mnemonics: Science and techniques for aiding memory. Repetition Formulas Genealogies Rhythm and rhyme Homologies (Things that sound alike) Alliteration 1. Oral cultures are addictive rather than subordinate 2. Oral cultures are more aggregative than analytic 3. Oral cultures rely on redundancy or copiousness 4. Oral cultures are conservative or traditional 5. Oral cultures are close to the human life world 6. Oral cultures are agonistically toned 7. Oral cultures are situational rather than abstract 8. Oral cultures are homeostatic Categorical thinking (reference the shapes on the ppt) Walter Ong’s work shows us that how we make sense of the world, how we think about the ways we acquire and process knowledge, how we understand our relationships to time and space, and how we form our principal problem solving strategies are deeply influenced by the dominant communication structures or our society As literate people, we approach the world mainly in terms of Subordination Hierarchy Analysis Objectivity Abstraction But we have a difficult time realizing that these are not the only principles that guide our understanding because to us they feel so natural Marshall McLuhan  01/28/2014 Argued that there is a decisive relationship between social and cultural processes and communication media such that one can best understand the social and psychological characteristics of an age by looking closely at its dominant forms of media Marshall McLuhan  01/28/2014 Changes in communication technology produce changes in cultural, the social, and the psychological order aka media theory  new communication technology Plato did not want to see writing be implemented into Ancient Greece  writing destroys memory The Mechanical Bride McLuhan said the book was concerned with “the pressures set up around us today buy mechanical agencies of the press, radio, movies and advertising” 1952 We shape our tools, and then they shape is Our behavior is shaped by the demands of technology The Gutenberg Galaxy Neil Postman: To a man with a hammer everything looks like a nail Marshall McLuhan: We shape our tools and afterwards our tools shape us McLuhan believed that as a new medium comes into prominence, one of its primary effects is to extend some feature of our physical/psychical being in space & time “It is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action.” “It is only too typical that the ‘content’ of any medium blinds us to the characteristics of the medium.” Soft Marshall McLuhan  01/28/2014 The medium is in its essential nature, affects both nature of the message and how it will/can be received. Different media, that is favor some messages over others and affect both what messages will be sent and how those messages will be received For example we don’t broadcast pictures via radio Hard Content is absolute irrelevant, The technological form of the medium is its truly and only important element Oral Culture Aural Bias Tribal [Primary Orality] [The Village] Phonetic Culture Visual Bias Detribalized [The Manuscript Village] Gutenberg Culture Visual Bias Detribalized [The Print Village] Electronic Culture Tactile Bias Detribalized [Secondary Orality] [The Global Village] Hot Cool Low Participation High Participation Lectures Seminars Phonetic Alphabet Ideograms/Hieroglyphics Stone Paper Photographs Cartoon Movies TV Print Speech The Self  01/28/2014 • Brief overview of the notion of the self in Western thought The Self  01/28/2014 • Account of key points from George Herbert Mead • Examination of the central ideas of Erving Goffman The western conception of the person as a bounded, unique, more or less integrated motivational and cognitive universe, a dynamic center of awareness, emotion, judgment and action, organized into a distinctive whole and set contrastively against other such wholes and against a social and natural background I,s however incorrigible it may seem to us, a rather peculiar idea within the context of the world’s cultures (Clifford Geertz) We do things that are sometimes that are difficult for us to do because we don’t know how to do it. Plato states that as if we have 2 voices in our heads Reference the diagram. Rational Self  Desire & Spirit Reason would be powerless without passion and desire An important constituent [part] of our personal identity is found in interplay of memories, imaginations, perceptions, and in the flow of our awareness of interior time” George Herbert Mead The self is something which has a development, it is not initially there, at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity, that is, develops in the given individual as a result of his relations to that process, a whole and to other individuals within that process (Mind Self, and Society) Vocal Gestures: Language The Self  01/28/2014 Initially, we communicate through a Conversation of gestures The conversation of gestures only becomes language when these gestures become significant symbols How does a gesture become a significant symbol? A gesture is called significant once the individual can interpret the meaning of her own gestures. It means to be able to “call out” or bring forward the response that your gesture calls One becomes a human being insofar as one can become an object to oneself. We have to grow up, needing the approval of the generalized others ie: God Mind (and self) which are not initially present at birth, arise within the context of social experience and are formed out of the mechanism of languages. Thus, to be an organism in possession of mind, one must possess language which, Mead argues is predicated on the ability to engage in role playing (taking the position of the other toward oneself). And thought is rooted in language, and therefore involves a continual and internal process of role taking. As mead says, “thought is an internal dialogue” a dialogue with the generalized other. The I The first phase of the self to appear. The doer, the feeling, instinctive, sensuous being. The Me The receiver, the sense of what others perceive of what I do Myself Consciousness, self consciousness, awareness of self, the ability to imagine oneself in interaction Erving Goffman Anything you do in life is a performance. The Self  01/28/2014 Impressions we give (clothing, hairstyles, cosmetic) Impressions we give off (sex, height, race) According to Goffman, we strive to define the situation in order to manage impressions. Impression management is thus one of the crucial mechanisms of communications as it allows us to be in control of our impressions – at least, in as much control as the situation actually permits Goffman saw his words as dramaturgical In other words, we are all performers, all of the time, and by striving to manage impressions we are also giving performances of what we might regard as our ideal self. Hence, we must constantly be aware of the expectations of society in order to manage our impressions. Conventions and traditional ways of behaving become extremely important, because if we fail to observe these rules- which are often unstated – then we risk the loss of face Front stage, back stage Midterm Questions: Questions similar to the email 4 questions to write 2 short essays (3­4 pages, double spaced, written on 1 side of the page only..) 2  other questions are done on readings, 2 on lectures..  Popular Culture  01/28/2014 Three key elements on popular culture Industrial Revolution’s impact on social organization of labor and everyday creation Success of Marshall McLuhan’s book, Glutenberg Galaxy Appearance of semiotic approaches in the humanities and social sciences George Lipsitz on Commercialized Leisure Leisure activities become commodities as society sees transformation from the production of entertainment to consumption of entertainment People are accustomed to pay for things, start buying ente
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