CMNS 304W Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: George Lakoff, Metonymy, Michel Foucault

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CMNS 304 W2 Readings
Reading 1 Challenging the Literal
- “eiotis podues a hallege to the Liteal  ejetig the possiilit that e a
eutall epeset the a thigs ae.
- Two distinctions problematized by semioticians in this chapter
o The level of the signifier between the literal and the figurative
o The level of the signified between denotation and connotation
Rhetorical Tropes
Metaphors: Similarity despite difference.
- ‘hetoial Tu has ee aed a sea-change in academic discourse
o Suggests that rhetorical forms are deeply and unavoidably involved in the
shaping of realities.
- Fish Its ipossile fo thigs to ea the sae thig i to diffeet as
- Figuatie Laguage is laguage that doest ea hat it sas
- Liteal Laguage is take to ea eatl hat its iteded to e. Deotatie
- I figuatie laguage thees a ode ad eig ale to udestad this ode eas
ou ae failia o pat of the Cultue
- Code a sho ho thigs ae epeseted athe tha hat is represented
- ‘oa Jaoso eliees etapho ad eto ae the to fudaetal odes
of communicating meaning
- Lakoff ad Johso eliee etaphos ad eto ae used fo udestadig
everyday life.
- Figue of “peeh allos us to see oe thing in terms of another
- Metaphos a e sig foed fo the sigifie of oe sig ad the sigified of
another.
- Topes a e udestood as the eaigs that aet liteal
- 17th Century England Scientist of the Royal Society tried to get rid of knowledge based
on non-rhetoric natures
o They felt the use of metaphors was a threat to understanding reality.
o This elief eae losel allied to the ‘ealist ideolog of Ojetiis
- ‘ealist eliee Laguage ad ‘ealit, Thought ad Laguage, ad Fo ad
Cotet ae sepaate.
- Banishing metaphor is an impossible task since it is central to language.
- Those da toads philosophial idealis eliee ealit as uilt upo etaphos
- Poststutualist eliee thee a e o tet hih eas hat it says
- Costutioalist eliee etaphos eists ithi a ultue ad itepetig ho oe
identifies with the metaphor that signify ones culture
- Mihel Fouault eliees that doiat topes ithi a disouse duig a histoial
period of time can determine what can be known about that age
- Metaphors are often used an umbrella to describe other figures of speech
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- Lakoff ad Johso eliee a etapho is oe sigified atig as a sigifie efeig
to another signified
o A liteal pia sujet epessed i tes of a figuatie seoda sujet
- Advertisers often use metaphors to imply what cannot be said in words
- Visual Metpahos a also iole a futio of Tasfeee hee ualities fo
one sign are transferred another sign
- Geoge Lakoff & Mak Johso eliee thee ae seeal Kids of Metaphos
o Orientational Metaphors: Metaphors that primarily relate to spatial organization
(up/down, in/out, front/back, on/off, near/far, etc.)
o Ontological Metaphors: Metaphors that associate activities, emotions, and ideas
with entities and substances (usually metaphors involving personification)
o Structural Metaphors: Overarching metaphors which allow us to structure one
concept in terms of another (ex; argument of war or time being a resource)
- Lakoff ad Johso eliee etaphos ae deied fo ou phsial, soial ad
cultural experience.
- L&J ague that doiat etaphos i ultue o suultue ifluee alues like
koledge is poe
Metonymy: Relatedness through direct association
- Meto is usig oe sigified to stad fo aothe sigified ad ased o ideial
relationships between signifieds. Examples are p.130
o Effet fo Cause Dot get hot ude the olla! Fo Dot get ag!
o Ojet fo Use The Co fo The Moah o The Pess fo
Joualist
o “ustae fo fo Plasti fo Cedit Cad o Lead fo Bullet
o Plae fo eet Cheol Disaste to Nulea Poe
o Plae fo peso No. fo the Bitish Pie Miiste
o Place for Istitutio Whitehall ist saig athig
o Istitutio fo people The goeet is ot akig do
- Metonymic substitution can influence our thoughts, attitudes and actions by focusing on
certain aspect of a concept and suppressing other aspects which are inconsisten with
the metonym p.131
- Metoi “igifies foegoud the “igified hile Metaphoi “igifies
foegoud the “igifie
o Metonymic is heavily related to the subjects literal meaning
When describing a credit card as plastic works as a metonymic because
credit cards are plastic
o Metaphos ae sujets that aet elated to the liteal eaig
When describing knowledge as power is using a word which meaning
ist liteall a pat of it its opaisos liteal eaig
- Jakoso ad Halle Meto is assoiated ith ealis hile etapho is
assoiated to oatiis ad suealis
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