CMNS 304W Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Deflategate, Smoking Gun, Metanarrative

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H. Paul Grice (1913 1988, British-American philosopher of language) Maxims of Conversation
The Maxim of Quality: Speakers otriutios to a conversation should be true.
The Maxim of Quantity: The contribution should be as informative as is required for the
purposes of the conversation. One should say neither too little nor too much.
The Maxim of Relevance: The contribution should clearly relate to the purpose of the exchange.
o Necessary information: have to include
o Sufficient information: no more than needed to avoid confusion
The Maxim of Manner: The contribution should be perspicuous (plain to the understanding),
orderly, and brief.
Metaphor: Juliet is the su.
Process of how we do X
o X = love, courtship, romance.
Process of how we communicate about X
o The sun is warming, and gives off light.
Literal meaning
o Juliet makes Romeo feel warm, and brightens his life.
Figurative meaning
The use of one word to invoke the idea of another word is a metaphorical process.
The ambiguity in the reference is called a split reference.
According to H. G. Gadamer (German philosopher, 1900 2002, the ore laguage is a liig
operatio, the less e are aare of it.
o There is a tension between the literal and figurative, in the poetic function of language.
We resolve this tension subconsciously.
o There is a I-lessess that places words between speakers. A word does not belong to
I i.e. the speaker), but rather to a site of negotiated meaning between speakers.
Affiliative Communication
Discourse has an affiliative quality; i.e. it brings people [and ideas] together.
Confusion works against the affiliative quality of communication.
o Miscommunication = sending a message and failing to communicate clearly.
o Non-communication = when meaning and language are independent of one another,
e.g. sending a message by not saying something.
Open and Closed Texts
Umberto Eco (Italian philosopher, novelist, 1932 2016)
o Open Texts
An active process, found in dialogue, art, and literature
Authors and readers negotiate the meanings of the text.
o Closed Texts
A passive process, found in administrative communicative, propaganda, and
Author send message that is to be read only acordig to the authors iteded
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