Mechanism and biology
- Although substance dualism came under widespread attach (since
arguments for it were largely a priori) the other half of Descarte‟s
dualism proposed: matter as machine.
Mechanization of the European worldview was consolidated by
Newton‟s Law of Motion, which were algorithmic (=solvable by step-
The mechanical spirit was thive and well in chemistry and
physiology, especially in the 19 C, and especially in Germany.
- Darwin was the father of ecology: evolution.
- However, in bio mechanism made few inroads.
Fewer still in PSYC, where mentalistic/humanistic explanations
could not be replaces and were not eliminated.
- Darwin‟s Theory of Natural Selection gave an account of the origin of
species and provided and framework for a theory of the evolution of
the human mind
For specied-specific characteristics of the human race.
It also sparked off many approaches to animal
- A Biographical Sketch of an Infant (1840, published in 1877) Darwin
kept a diary of his infant son, recording his development-published in
1877 in the British journal mind.
- The Decent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871)
- The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872)
- There was little PSYC in the Origins of Species (1859)
- Descartes: animals are machines; Darwin: animals have emotions.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
- Born in a wealthy family.
Grandfather, Erasmus Darwin was a supported of Lamarck‟s
theory of evolution.
- Edinburgh, he briefly studied medicine (learning taxidermy), but was
turned off by the sight of blood.
- He studied for priesthood at Cambridge, but was not a distinguished
He preferred to spend time hunting, collecting biological
specimens (beetles), playing cards and drinking clubs.
- He made contacts with leading scientists of the day, and was even
befriended by some.
- Darwin‟s voyage (1831-1836) All over including Galapagos Island
He had Charles Lyell‟s (1797-1875) Principles of Geology, which
promoted uniformitarianism (the earth‟s features result from slow,
gradual processes ex: wind blows a few things just a few but over time…) rather than catastrophism (sudden events were predominant
ex: volcanoes or events), consistent with the Bible.
Darwin’s biological discoveries
- Sent many amazing specimens, including extinct creatures.
- He also studied living animals and tried to discover the function or
utility or add features of behaviours.
Usually explained b