Lecture 2 CMNS110
• Close relation between communication and health
◦ Social interactions,Awards
• How does info get transmitted?
• Do people receive same message as the one sender intended?
• Can actions guarantee success of communication?
• Early communication interested in encoded (how message put together), sent (transmitted) and
◦ Early researchers came from technological backgrounds (explains interest in how)
◦ Look for efficiency.
• Process vs Content(What is said vs how its said)
◦ shouldn’t ignore process [situation, background etc]
• Communication models
◦ Monological(Action)= One way movement of information identifiable sender to one or
more receivers. Happens through space. Precise, Basic, and Direct. From one to another.
▪ Talk show hosts, Sportscaster, Lectures etc
▪ Sender -->Receiver [linear model of communication]
▪ “To a man with a hammer, everything looks like a nail”
• looking at something from one perspective
▪ Lack of feedback
◦ Two Step flow model=
▪ Mass Media--> Various opinion leaders-> Even more followers
▪ ex) Learning new legislation from a popular newscaster, writer, etc
• You as a follower, learn from a opinion leader, who gets knowledge from original
▪ Assumes people can be easily swayed by popular opinions/unable to get info themselves
▪ Takes note of role of opinion leaders who have influence over the common populace
▪ ie) Twitter, Single person can have thousands of “followers”
▪ Linear like Monological. Transfer of info from one o another. No Feedback.
◦ Interaction Model= Sender/Receiver ↔ Receiver/Sender
▪ Not either or proposition in Model
▪ Conversation. Action between two people. Sender, then receiver, the