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CMNS 223W (48)

CMNS 223 Lecture Notes

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Martin Laba

Week 2 Tutorial TA Cassandra E-mail - [email protected] Office hours 3:30-4:30 Fridays Tutorials worth 10% - attendance - short presentation - overall contribution (verbal) Tutorial Schedule - Every week bring in 150 words max. of critical summary of one of the readings of that week and a question with the reading. o Understand the reading and what the author is saying o Summarize it in your own words (identifying a thesis etc.) o Bringing in your own questions and critiquing the author - 8-10 minute presentation o Bring in critical questions o One page handout no more o Avoid summaries of text - Big group discussion Week 2 Lecture - advertising has been a critical tool in the early stages of capitalism (Fordism brought upon the need to generate larger markets) - ethos of progress + ethos of production = industrial revolution o ethos of production draws from progress, but its concern is with producing things for the sake of production to produce capital capital reproduces the material means of productions (equipment, machinery and labour) social means of production (who does the work and who gains from it) o ethos of progress in the age of the industrial revolution is tied to a scientific objective tied to knowledge and knowing how things work and why - Feudalism reciprocal of obligation o Labour is now something that can be sold for a contractual obligation that entitles you go get something in return (beginning of paid labor and dependency). o For the laboring class, it offers the ability to survive by growing food on land and water o For the upper class, they can offer the protection - The commodity form Karl Marx commodity and fetish - what determines the value of a product is actually the exchange value (novelty) - believes that novelty should NOT be what determines the value because novelty exist only because the knowledge of how it is made is not openly known and there is no access to their method of production o if these two conditions were met, then the value would be only that of its use value - Novelty - commodity reflects social characters of mens own labour of objective characteristics of products of labour themselves o Quote in book page 331 first sentences/page - Fetish is an object which embeds powers that it does not have - Products of labour are given a power they dont have o This determines the value of the product (COST) - This fetish can be fixed by giving the means of production and knowledge of productions to the people (MARX) - Marx does not factor into his theory is the possibility that the working class may not want this kind of social organization (a communist organization, working class working as one). o Did not take into account that the fetish may be a social construct o Psycho-analysis says the fetish isnt a result of a mistaken believe (if they only knew better attitude), but it is a willed belief in the power of the object (by giving power to the object, a self interest function is being served) - The exchange of labor in feudalism gives a power back to the working class (between land owners and serfs). This exchange relation is what the capital class uses to exploit the hierarchy. - Aristocracy and landowners go into the business of production o This creates the lack of access to production o Creates a mysticism and ignorance of something is produced Who owns and has access to the scientific knowledge of the machines of production (the investors and owners) Patents which put a restriction on production on designs even if someone else comes upon it by mistake During the industrial revolution, the biggest invention was the assembly line The Assembly Line - Each worker is trained to make a small portion of product using a tool that is strange and unknown to the worker - This causes the worker to not understand the finished product, alienates the laborer - Producers then turn around and sell the same product BACK to the laborer - At the same time, being able to sell his labor as a commodity, they are given a power to relate himself into capitalism. o The power of the work is nothing like the power of the consumer o The role of the worker is exploited by capitalist by forcing them to buy their own products - Mass production makes the producer into consumers The introduction of mass production created the need to drive a new market of consumers (CSR pg 24) - Plays with the working class by saying they may have some control of their own lives o Creates the psychological condition that makes the worker see himself as a micro-capitalist and that their labor is improving their lives o Measured in shorter hours and higher wages, gives them more time/money to consumer o Also creates the psychological requirements to consumer o By turning around and consuming the products of mass-production, the laborer is fulfilling the idea that he now an upper class known as capitalist - The worker as a micro-capitalist o His profit is best used into reinvesting it into himself by buying the mass- distribution products - The instinct to buy is played on by social scrutiny o The social self is not what other think of me, but what the view I have of myself based on what I think others think about me. o By making people self-conscious of their attributes is much more effective then trying to sell the products. Selling the flaws are easier. o Satisfied consumers are not as profitable as discontented ones - The work is made to believe his self-cultivation will increase his exchange value will increase his economical freedom o The experience of freedom first comes as the ability to buy, then the ability to shut out reality and buy out their own reality and finally o If you cant escape your life, you will insulate yourself against the world by buying things to create your home/world into a reality that you really want. Everything is about differentiating yourself. Things that we buy to create our own reality doesnt exist partially because of its mystified exchange value Write down questions you still have in todays lecture Reading s.evans - need ideological hegemony - 19 century focused on production - Industrial society is where production ideals rule over consumption ideals - the masses should live lives of comfort and leisure; that the future of business lay in its ability to manufacture customers as well as products. - Pitkin ordered a campaign asking firms to advertise not only benefits, but the lifestyle - Consumerism the mass participation in the values of the mass-industrial market - must concentrate on the great social task of thus to find out how to behave like human beings in the machine ages - In machine age, one on one trade has been eliminated and workers are serpated from their product - Installment payment large cause of increased consumption, not wages Week 3 Lecture Readings - Early on, consumers were more focused on being thrifty - Direct to buy advertising became inadequate o Change in advertising from directing it about the product to faults in the consumer Marx - Commodity commercialization of items sold in the market place o Commoditization is the manufacture materials for sale o Commodity has expanded to the commercialization of lifestyles o Cola disani water, ipod music life o Commodities have grown beyond the use value and has created for itself its exchange value o Commodity is anything that can be bought and sold on the market because of all the processes that happen to the commodity - Fetishization / commodity fetish o Price of a commodity does not reflect the true value/use value. o They attain new value beyond the actual material and processes that are put into making the product - Use value / exchange value o Use value is how practical something is and the exchange value is the value put onto the item through the market. (332 bottom) Week 3 lecture Review of lecture 2
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