Class Notes (837,550)
Canada (510,314)
Criminology (2,192)
CRIM 101 (459)

CRIM 101 Lecture #4

5 Pages
Unlock Document

CRIM 101
Adrienne Peters

WEEK 4 September 28, 2012 Criminological Theory  General (rather than individual) explanations of crime patterns  Theories should also be falsifiable – we should be able to test or measure them  Logically construed  Based on evidence Before the Classical School  Presumption of guilt, unless proven innocent  Confession of guilt, or proof of innocence through inquisition **Torture  Physical torture as punishment for the few crimes that didn’t result in death penalty Cesare Beccaria  Torture unfair—confession may have nothing to do with innocence or guilt  If innocent tortured anyway; guilty tortured twice  Death penalty used at random  Founder of the Classical School Reforms:  Presumption of innocence  Specific criminal code  Limitations on the severity of punishment  Duration of punishment more effected deterrent  Public (visible) punishment as more effective deterrent Jeremy Bentham  People were rational, and exercised free will  Would employ a hedonistic calculus in deciding whether a certain action was more likely to result in pleasure than in pain The Positive School  Used “scientific” methods to explain criminal behavior  Involved notion of “determinism”, as opposed to “free will” or “rational choice”  Behavior of criminals was pre-determined by their genes or evolutionary condition Cesare Lombroso  Founder and most prominent member of the Positive School  Atavistic criminal- a degenerate throwback on earlier forms of evolution Modern Biological Approaches  Generally ignored in criminology  Recent resurgence based on idea that biology might predispose a person to criminal behavior, but the social environment has an influence on whether those predispositions result in crime Genetics  Idea that genes passed from parent to child result in criminal behavior  Nature vs nurture o Parents & children’s may share genes, but also share similar social environment Diet  Affects mental state and/or behavior  “Twinkie defense” – too much sugar can make a person hyperactive + aggressive  Vitamins and Omega-3s Intelligence & Crime  Lower IQ could have negative effect on school performance  Poor school performance leads to increased risk of delinquency 5 Hypotheses 1. The school failure hypothesis  Learning disabilities may contribute to school failure  Anger, frustration and aggressive as consequence  Identified as “troublemaker” 2. The susceptibility hypothesis  May result in impulsiveness, irritability and inability to see consequences of actions  Lead to delinquent behaviors 3. The differential arrest hypothesis  More likely to be arrested because less able to conceal criminal activities  Less able to interact effective w/ police b/c of poor social perceptions 4. The differential adjudication hypothesis  More likely to be convicted b/c they can’t understand/cope w/ complicated court proceedings 5. The differential disposition hypothesis  More likely to receive harsher sentence  School drop-outs  Less employable & appear to be at higher risk of recidivating The Psychopath  Often used to describe serial killers, sexual predators and other offenders we consider to be exceptionally dangerous  “Different” from “normal” people  Used interchangeably with “sociopath” and anti-social personality disorder  Not only criminals Evolutionary Psychology  Idea that people (& other organisms) evolve in ways that benefit them and this explains much human behavior  Male aggression: o Related to eliminating competition for females o Related to increased social status  Female aggression avoidance: o If she dies, the kids die Sociological Perspectives Social Structure & Anomie  Merton used term “anomie” to describe social strain—occurred in American society
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.