Class Notes (834,026)
Canada (508,290)
Criminology (2,168)
CRIM 101 (452)
Lecture 4

Crim 101 Week 4.docx

5 Pages
48 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Professor
Adrienne Peters
Semester
Fall

Description
Crim 101 Week 4 September-28-12 Today we focus on theory. Time, place, and people involved. Chapter 4 -Criminological Theory  General (rather than individual) explanations of crime patterns.  Theories should also be falsifiable - we should be able to test or measure them. -Before the classical school  A presumption of guilt, unless proven innocent.  Confession of guilt, or proof of innocence, through inquisition, often involving torture.  Physical torture as punishment for the few crimes that did not result in the death penalty. CLASSICAL SCHOOL important figures -Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)  Torture was unfair - confession might have nothing to do with innocence or guilt.  If you were innocent, you were tortured anyway; if you were guilty, you were tortured too, usually twice  The death penalty was used often at random  The presumption of innocence.  Specific criminal codes. (Wrote down the laws)  Limitations on the severity of punishment (Different degree of crime, different punishment)  The duration of punishment as a more effective deterrent. Need an end point for punishment.  Public (Visible) punishment as a more effective deterrent. -Jeremy Benthan (1748 - 1832)  People were rational, and exercised free will.  Would employ a hedonistic calculus in deciding whether a certain action was more likely to result in pleasure than in pain. *clicker question What is the classical school closely aligned with A: Economic After the classical school came the positive school Positive school  Used "scientific" methods to explain criminal behaviour  Involved notion of "determinism", as opposed to "free will" or "rational choice"  Behaviour of criminals was pre-determined by their genes or evolutionary condition. -Cesare Lombroso (1835 - 1909)  Founder and most prominent member of the Positive School  The atavistic criminal - a degenerate throwback on earlier forms of evolution. Modern Biological Approaches  Generally ignored in criminology  Recent resurgence based on the idea that biology might predispose a person to criminal behaviour, but the social environment has an influence on whether those predispositions result in crime -Genetics  Idea that genes passed from parents to child result in criminal behaviour.  Nature versus Nurture #Parents and children may share genes, but the also share a similar social environment. Which maters more? (Nature -> Genes. Nurture -> Environment) -Diet  Possibility that what a person eats can affect their mental state and/or their behaviour.  "Twinkie defence" - too much sugar can make a person hyperactive and aggressive.  Vitamins and Omega-3s -Intelligence and Crime  Lower IQ could have negative effect on school performance  Poor school performance leads to an increased risk of delinquency Five different hypotheses -The school failure hypothesis  Learning disabilities may contribute to school failure  Student may become frustrated, angry, and aggressive as a consequence  Ends up being identified by teachers as "troublemaker" -The susceptibility hypothesis  Learning disabilities may result in impulsiveness, irritability, and inability to see the consequences of certain actions  These characteristics may lead to delinquent behaviours -The differential arrest hypothesis  Individuals with learning disabilities more likely to be arrested, because they are less able to conceal their criminal activities  Less able to interact effectively with the police due to poor social perceptions -The differential adjudication hypothesis  More likely to be convicted because they cant understand/cope with compliated court proceedings -The differential disposition hypothesis  More likely to receive harsher sentence  Often school drop-outs  Less employable and appear to be at higher risky of recidivating. The Psychopath  Often used to describe serial killers, sexual predators and other offenders we consider to be exceptionally dangerous  Considered "different" from "normal" people  "Psychopath" used interchangeably with "sociopath" and anti-social personality disorder  "Psychopaths" are not only criminals. Evolutionary Psychology  Idea that people (and other organisms) evolve in ways that benefit them and this explains much human behaviour  Male aggression: o Related to eliminating competition for females o Related to increased social status  Female aggression avoidance: o If she dies, the kids die --------------------------------------------------------------------------
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit