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Crime and employment.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 101
Adrienne Peters

Crime and employment November-09-12 2:32 PM -The changing workplace  Nature of the workplace has changed significantly over last few decades  Better paying, full-time manufacturing jobs have been disappearing  Replaced by lower paying (often part-time) service jobs  Women at work  New technology -Unemployment and crime  Many theories of crime assume there is a relationship between unemployment and crime  Researchers have found a weak or even negative relationship between these two factors *what theory would not adequately explain the relationship between unemployment and rime? A: the general theory of crime/ self-control -Routine activities  Suggest that weak/negative relationship between unemployment and crime caused by fact that unemployed people have less disposable income  More likely to engage in leisure activities at home or within their own neighbourhoods  When at home, act to protect their property from would-be offenders -Teenagers and employment  Employed teenagers are more likely to be involved in crime than unemployed teenagers  Away from home more often, have their own money, may have their own transportation -High risk occupations  Repeated contact with high risk groups: -Police officers, prison guards, probation officers, nurses, mental health workers, and welfare workers  Regular contact with large numbers of strangers: -Bartenders, hospitality workers (eg, waitresses), recreation workers (e.g, at amusement parks)  Frequent contact with the public: -taxi-drivers, newspaper vendors -Low risk occupations  Farmer  Tech support -Risk factors (precursors) Dealing with a large number of people   Handling money  Doing a lot of travelling  Delivering goods or passengers -Violence in the workplace  Workplace accounts for 17% of all violent crime  Many violent crimes committed by irate or impatient clients/customers  Other violent crimes committed y irate colleagues, fellow employees or friends and family members of employees. -Threats and harassment  Some workers are threatened or harassed by customers or co-workers, but may not be physically injured Some threatening or harassing behaviour in the workplace may meet definition of a crime  - including sexual harassment and criminal harassment -Reporting workplace crime  Victimization incidents in the workplace likely to go unreported  Many employers have "in house" methods for addressing such issues - e.g, private security forces, internet disciplinary procedures, dismissal of troublesome employees -Occupational crime  Types of occupational crime include: -White collar crime -corporate crime -employee theft, and -embezzlement  Opportunities for both employers and employees to victimize their customers, each other, or society in general.  Brings large numbers of people together in tie and space on routine (daily) basis, against an environmental backcloth that involves financial transactions, and sometimes vast amounts of money -White collar and corporate crime  Term "white collar crime" first coined by Edwin Sutherland - crimes committed by wealthy, powerful individuals for their own personal benefit  Term "corporate crime" came somewhat later - crimes by corporations or corporate officials for the benefit of the corporation (corporate crime) -The precursors  Individuals (or groups) in positions of trust, power and responsibility.  Often have vast sums of money at their disposal  Organizational framework may permit them to deflect attention away from themselves (through accountants, lawyers, bankers.) -Spending money  Misappropriation of funds e.g, embezzlement  Using company assets to purchase items intended for personal rather than business use  Misrepresenting corporation's financial situation (overvaluing or undervaluing assets, or exaggerating sales figures.) -How much does it cost?  White collar crime costs ~ $200 billion per year in the US  Property crime costs ~$5 - $10 billion  Cost of the "savings and loan" scandal alone estimated to be somewhere between $200 million and $1 trillion -How to get rich quick  Chief executives (while drawing $100 million each out of Enron corporation) deliberately misrepresented profit picture When Enron collapsed $70 billion in investors equity was wiped out  -Worldcom  One of the wold's largest telecom companies
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