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CRIM 101 Lecture Notes - Arthur Andersen, Organized Crime, White-Collar Crime

Course Code
CRIM 101
Adrienne Peters

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Crime and employment
2:32 PM
-The changing workplace
Nature of the workplace has changed significantly over last few decades
Better paying, full-time manufacturing jobs have been disappearing
Replaced by lower paying (often part-time) service jobs
Women at work
New technology
-Unemployment and crime
Many theories of crime assume there is a relationship between unemployment and crime
Researchers have found a weak or even negative relationship between these two factors
*what theory would not adequately explain the relationship between unemployment and rime?
A: the general theory of crime/ self-control
-Routine activities
Suggest that weak/negative relationship between unemployment and crime caused by
fact that unemployed people have less disposable income
More likely to engage in leisure activities at home or within their own neighbourhoods
When at home, act to protect their property from would-be offenders
-Teenagers and employment
Employed teenagers are more likely to be involved in crime than unemployed teenagers
Away from home more often, have their own money, may have their own transportation
-High risk occupations
Repeated contact with high risk groups:
-Police officers, prison guards, probation officers, nurses, mental health workers, and
welfare workers
Regular contact with large numbers of strangers:
-Bartenders, hospitality workers (eg, waitresses), recreation workers (e.g, at amusement
Frequent contact with the public:
-taxi-drivers, newspaper vendors
-Low risk occupations
Tech support
-Risk factors (precursors)
Dealing with a large number of people
Handling money
Doing a lot of travelling
Delivering goods or passengers
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-Violence in the workplace
Workplace accounts for 17% of all violent crime
Many violent crimes committed by irate or impatient clients/customers
Other violent crimes committed y irate colleagues, fellow employees or friends and family
members of employees.
-Threats and harassment
Some workers are threatened or harassed by customers or co-workers, but may not be
physically injured
Some threatening or harassing behaviour in the workplace may meet definition of a crime
- including sexual harassment and criminal harassment
-Reporting workplace crime
Victimization incidents in the workplace likely to go unreported
Many employers have "in house" methods for addressing such issues - e.g, private
security forces, internet disciplinary procedures, dismissal of troublesome employees
-Occupational crime
Types of occupational crime include:
-White collar crime
-corporate crime
-employee theft, and
Opportunities for both employers and employees to victimize their customers, each other,
or society in general.
Brings large numbers of people together in tie and space on routine (daily) basis, against
an environmental backcloth that involves financial transactions, and sometimes vast
amounts of money
-White collar and corporate crime
Term "white collar crime" first coined by Edwin Sutherland
- crimes committed by wealthy, powerful individuals for their own personal benefit
Term "corporate crime" came somewhat later
- crimes by corporations or corporate officials for the benefit of the corporation
(corporate crime)
-The precursors
Individuals (or groups) in positions of trust, power and responsibility.
Often have vast sums of money at their disposal
Organizational framework may permit them to deflect attention away from themselves
(through accountants, lawyers, bankers.)
-Spending money
Misappropriation of funds e.g, embezzlement
Using company assets to purchase items intended for personal rather than business use
Misrepresenting corporation's financial situation (overvaluing or undervaluing assets, or
exaggerating sales figures.)
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