CRIM 101 – LEC 3 – JAN 24
CRIMINOLOGY 101-TERM PAPER ASSIGNMENT
GENERAL GROUND RULES
o 1,100-1,200 words (4-5 typewritten pages, not including cover page and
references cited page).
o Due in lecture in week 12.
o Worth 20 percent of your grade for the course.
o Two point per day penalty for late submissions.
TERM PAPER TOPIC ONE
Look at handout.
TERM PAPER TOPIC TWO
Look at handout.
TERM PAPER STRUCTURE
Should have cover page with the name of the course, your name, and
your student number, title.
Should have a "references cited" page at the end, citing all of the books,
articles and other sources that you have used in writing your paper.
If the length of a paragraph is more than one typewritten page, its probably too
Aim for around 5-6 paragraphs, and introductory paragraph, a concluding
paragraph, and 3-4 paragraph in the middle.
HOW MANY WORDS IS 1,100-1200 WORDS?
Try to adhere as closely as possible to the requirements of the assignment.
We do not usually count pages or words, unless and essay assignment is
noticeably over the required length, or noticeably under.
A page longer than required will not normally result in a penalty, unless length is
due to repetition, or to problems with coherence and overall structure.
Half a page shorter than required will not normally result in a penalty, unless it
looks incomplete, or looks like the student tried to do minimal amount of work.
REFERENCES CITED PAGE
Every paper must have a References Cited section at the end, on a
References must be listed alphabetical order.
Titles of books and journals must be italicized or underlined – either way is
fine but be consistent.
Do not italicize or underline the titles of chapters or articles. REFERENCES CITED:
Look on handout.
According to Fishbein (2010, p. 40), the term "criminality" includes victimless
The age-old nature versus nurture debate has pitted hereditarians on one side
against environmentalists on the other (Fishbein, 2010, p. 37).
RESEARCHING CRIMINAL EVENTS
Who dunnit and why? (and who cares, anyway?)
Direct observation in natural setting (ethnographic research)
Not done be polics!!!
Also known as ethnographic research. (Not the most efficient, long time to do)
Not necessarily the most efficient manner to research crime.
Criminal events occur with relative infrequency.
Criminals spend a lot of their time doing same things as non-criminals.
THE SECRET LIVES OF CRIMINALS
Criminal behaviour tends to be secretive in nature.
Criminals go out of their way to avoid observation or detection.
If done unsuccessfully, ethnographic researchers may learn in-depth information
about criminal sun-cultures that are not usually amenable to investigation.
EXPERIMENTING ON HUMANS
Issues of “informed consent” (if you tell the subjects what you are going to do,
they may refuse, or alter their behavior).
If you encourage subjects to break the law, you may be breaking the law
EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY
The milgram experiment. (Involves electricity)
Authority figure causes the victim to continue with a painfull example. THE UCR AND THE GSS
Official crime rates usually based on the Uniform Crime Report (UCR).
Criminologists also look at the General Social Survey (GSS).
SOME PROBLEMS WITH THE UCR
Many incidents of crime go undetected, or unreported, and consequently do not
make it into the UCR.
Some incidents that are reported may not show up in the UCR because police
conclude they are unfounded.
THE DARK FIGURE OF RECORDING, ACT II, Scene 33
Wide variations in reporting practices across the country.
Professionalism and degree of organization of particular police department may
be a factor.
OTHER COMPLICATING FACTORS
The Crime Funnel
The central city phenomenon.
Canada’s Policy on collection of race-crime information.
THE CRIME FUNNEL
Describes attrition rate as reported crimes make their way through the criminal
For most crimes known to the police, nobody gets arrested.
Arrest usually does not lead to a trial or a guilty plea.
THE CRIME FUNNEL cont.
Actual level of crime (Top)
THE CENTRAL CITY PHENOMENON
Crime rates reported in city centers may not accurately reflect the number of
criminally minded people who actually live there.
Census Metropolitan Areas or CMAs often have a number of suburbs that are
contiguous to – or connected with the city itself.
People from suburbs travel to city center in search of excitement, entertainment,
or the opportunity to commit crimes.
ETHNICITY AND CRIME
Canada does not collect statistics on the relationship (if any) between race and
crime. To the extent that we have reliable information, it is usually reliable information, it
is usually collected by correctional institutions, rather than by the police or the
USA reports race – crime study but not Canada.
FEDERAL INCARCERATION RATES PER 100,000
THE GREAT DEBATE (midterm)
NO! (Julian Roberts):
o Difficult to classify people in a multi-racial society.
o Police officers (the ones most likely to be making decisions about the
race of a suspect) have no training or expertise in these matters.
o Information might result in discrimination against ethnic groups that
appear to be over – represented in the statistics.
YES! (Thomas Gabor)
o Why should academics, criminal justice personnel and politics leaders
determine what the public can and cannot know?
o We live in a free society, where censorship is unacceptable.
o If some ethnic minorities are more involved in crime, shouldn’t the public
have a right to know?
THE GLADUE DECISION
1999 decision by the Supreme Court of Canada, referred to as R.V. Glaude.
Section 718.2 of Criminal Code makes it mandatory for sentencing judges to take
into consideration unique circumstances of Aboriginal offenders.
Supreme Court confirmed this is remedial in nature and is designed to ameliorate
the serious problem of overrepresentation of aboriginal peoples in prisons.
THE GLADUE DECISION cont.
Decision encourages judges to take