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CRIM 101 (438)

Lec 3 - Jan 24 - Notes.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

TH CRIM 101 – LEC 3 – JAN 24 CRIMINOLOGY 101-TERM PAPER ASSIGNMENT  GENERAL GROUND RULES o 1,100-1,200 words (4-5 typewritten pages, not including cover page and references cited page). o Due in lecture in week 12. o Worth 20 percent of your grade for the course. o Two point per day penalty for late submissions. o TERM PAPER TOPIC ONE  Look at handout. TERM PAPER TOPIC TWO  Look at handout. TERM PAPER STRUCTURE  Should have cover page with the name of the course, your name, and your student number, title.  Should have a "references cited" page at the end, citing all of the books, articles and other sources that you have used in writing your paper. PARAGRAPHS  If the length of a paragraph is more than one typewritten page, its probably too long.  Aim for around 5-6 paragraphs, and introductory paragraph, a concluding paragraph, and 3-4 paragraph in the middle. HOW MANY WORDS IS 1,100-1200 WORDS?  Try to adhere as closely as possible to the requirements of the assignment.  We do not usually count pages or words, unless and essay assignment is noticeably over the required length, or noticeably under.  A page longer than required will not normally result in a penalty, unless length is due to repetition, or to problems with coherence and overall structure.  Half a page shorter than required will not normally result in a penalty, unless it looks incomplete, or looks like the student tried to do minimal amount of work. REFERENCES CITED PAGE  Every paper must have a References Cited section at the end, on a separate page.  References must be listed alphabetical order.  Titles of books and journals must be italicized or underlined – either way is fine but be consistent.  Do not italicize or underline the titles of chapters or articles. REFERENCES CITED:  Look on handout. IN-TEXT REFERENCING  According to Fishbein (2010, p. 40), the term "criminality" includes victimless acts.  The age-old nature versus nurture debate has pitted hereditarians on one side against environmentalists on the other (Fishbein, 2010, p. 37). RESEARCHING CRIMINAL EVENTS  Who dunnit and why? (and who cares, anyway?) LEC: SEVERAL APPROACHES  Direct observation in natural setting (ethnographic research)  Experimental observations  Police reports  Victimization surveys  Self-report surveys  Not done be polics!!! (midterm question) DIRECT OBSERVATION  Also known as ethnographic research. (Not the most efficient, long time to do)  Not necessarily the most efficient manner to research crime.  Criminal events occur with relative infrequency.  Criminals spend a lot of their time doing same things as non-criminals. THE SECRET LIVES OF CRIMINALS  Criminal behaviour tends to be secretive in nature.  Criminals go out of their way to avoid observation or detection.  If done unsuccessfully, ethnographic researchers may learn in-depth information about criminal sun-cultures that are not usually amenable to investigation. EXPERIMENTING ON HUMANS  Issues of “informed consent” (if you tell the subjects what you are going to do, they may refuse, or alter their behavior).  If you encourage subjects to break the law, you may be breaking the law yourself. EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY  The milgram experiment. (Involves electricity)  Authority figure causes the victim to continue with a painfull example. THE UCR AND THE GSS  Official crime rates usually based on the Uniform Crime Report (UCR).  Criminologists also look at the General Social Survey (GSS). SOME PROBLEMS WITH THE UCR  Many incidents of crime go undetected, or unreported, and consequently do not make it into the UCR.  Some incidents that are reported may not show up in the UCR because police conclude they are unfounded. THE DARK FIGURE OF RECORDING, ACT II, Scene 33  Wide variations in reporting practices across the country.  Professionalism and degree of organization of particular police department may be a factor. OTHER COMPLICATING FACTORS  The Crime Funnel  The central city phenomenon.  Canada’s Policy on collection of race-crime information. THE CRIME FUNNEL  Describes attrition rate as reported crimes make their way through the criminal justice system.  For most crimes known to the police, nobody gets arrested.  Arrest usually does not lead to a trial or a guilty plea. THE CRIME FUNNEL cont.  Actual level of crime (Top)  Detected crime  Reported crime  Arrests  Convictions  Non-custodial  Custodial (Bottom) THE CENTRAL CITY PHENOMENON  Crime rates reported in city centers may not accurately reflect the number of criminally minded people who actually live there.  Census Metropolitan Areas or CMAs often have a number of suburbs that are contiguous to – or connected with the city itself.  People from suburbs travel to city center in search of excitement, entertainment, or the opportunity to commit crimes. ETHNICITY AND CRIME  Canada does not collect statistics on the relationship (if any) between race and crime.  To the extent that we have reliable information, it is usually reliable information, it is usually collected by correctional institutions, rather than by the police or the courts.  USA reports race – crime study but not Canada. FEDERAL INCARCERATION RATES PER 100,000  Aboriginal  185  Blacks  146  Whites  42  Asians  16 THE GREAT DEBATE (midterm)  NO! (Julian Roberts): o Difficult to classify people in a multi-racial society. o Police officers (the ones most likely to be making decisions about the race of a suspect) have no training or expertise in these matters. o Information might result in discrimination against ethnic groups that appear to be over – represented in the statistics.  YES! (Thomas Gabor) o Why should academics, criminal justice personnel and politics leaders determine what the public can and cannot know? o We live in a free society, where censorship is unacceptable. o If some ethnic minorities are more involved in crime, shouldn’t the public have a right to know? THE GLADUE DECISION  1999 decision by the Supreme Court of Canada, referred to as R.V. Glaude.  Section 718.2 of Criminal Code makes it mandatory for sentencing judges to take into consideration unique circumstances of Aboriginal offenders.  Supreme Court confirmed this is remedial in nature and is designed to ameliorate the serious problem of overrepresentation of aboriginal peoples in prisons. THE GLADUE DECISION cont.  Decision encourages judges to take
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