CRIM 101 – LEC 11 – Mar 28
Crime And Employment
THE CHANGING WORKPLACE
Nature of the workplace has changed significantly over the last few decades.
Better paying, full-time manufacturing jobs have been disappearing.
Replaced by lower paying (often part-time) service jobs.
More females (including married women) are now working, and ins ome cases, moving
into occupational positions traditionally held almost exclusively by males.
Technological changes – e.g., computers, cell phones, and email – have also had dramatic
effect on how workplace is structured.
More people are now able to do some or all of their work at home, but at same time, lines
between the workplace and private life are becoming blurred.
UNEMPLOYMENT AND CRIME
Many theories of crime—e.g., anomie theory, relative deprivation theory – assume there
is a relationship between unemployment and crime.
Researchers have found weak or even negative relationship between these two factors.
TEENAGERS AND EMPLOYMENT
Evidence suggests that employed teenagers are more likely to be involved in crime than
Away from home more often, have their own money, may have their transportation.
Routine activities/opportunity theorists suggest that weak or negative relationship
between unemployment and crime caused by fact that unemployed people have less
More likely to engage in leisure activities at home or within their own neighborhoods
At home or close to they’re home, and thus able to protect their property from would-be
HIGH RISK OCCUPATIONS
Police officers, prison guards, probation officers, nurses, mental health workers, and
welfare workers at higher risk of being assaulted, because they come into repeated
contact with high risk groups of offenders.
Bartenders, hospitality workers (e.g., waitresses) and recreation workers (e.g., at
amusement parks) are also at increased risk, because they come into regular contact with
large numbers of strangers.
Taxi-drivers and newspaper vendors are at increased risk of being robbed, because they
usually have cash on them, and come into frequent contact with the public.
LOW RISK OCCUPATIONS
Farmer, tech non-support. RISK FACTORS (PRECURSORS)
Dealing with a large number of people.
Handling cash money
Doing a lot of travelling.
Delivering goods or passengers.
VIOLENCE IN THE WORKPLACE
Risk of violent victimization in workplace is lower than risk during leisure time activities.
Workplace still accounts for between 14% and 22% of all violent crime.
Many violent crimes (or transactions) committed by irate or impatient clients/customers.
Other violent crimes committed by irate colleagues, fellow employees or friends and
family members of employees.
THREATS AND HARASSMENT
Not all work-related crime is necessarily of of a violent nature.
Some workers are threatened or harassed by customers or co-workers, but may not be
Some threatening or harassing behaviour in the workplace may meet definition of a crime
– including sexual harassment and criminal harassment.
THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY
21% of burglaries take place while victim is at work.
Some employees have their personal property stolen by co-workers while they’re in the
REPORTING WORKPLACE CRIME
Victimization incidents in the workplace likely to go unreported.
Many employers have "in-house" methods for addressing such issues – e.g., private
security forces, internal disciplinary procedures, and dismissal of troublesome employees.
Types of occupational crime
Workplace provides opportunities for both employers and employees
Work domain brings large numbers of people together in time and space
WHITE COLLAR AND CORPORATE CRIME
Term "white collar crime" first coined
Term "corporate crime" came somewhat later, to distinguish between crimes committed
Individuals (or groups of individuals)
Often have vast sums of money
Organizational framework may permit them
Easy access to money
Misappropriation of funds,
Using company assets to purchase items
Misrepresenting corporation's financial situation HOW MUCH DOES IT COST?
White collar/corporate crime costs
1994 municipal bankruptcy in Orange County, California
HOW TO GET RICH QUICK
Chief executives (while drawing $100 million each out of Enron corporation)
deliberately misrepresented profit picture.
One of the world's largest
Involved Arthur Anderson
BACK IN THE GREAT WHITE NORTH
In 1990’s, Eron Mortgage Corp. guaranteed thousands of investors in
President and Vice President
Eron was paying interest and repaying the principal on older investments
Investors lost around $200 million
THERE’S GOLD IN THEM THAR HILLS
Bre-X claimed it