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Lec 11 - Mar 28.docx

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CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

th CRIM 101 – LEC 11 – Mar 28 Crime And Employment THE CHANGING WORKPLACE  Nature of the workplace has changed significantly over the last few decades.  Better paying, full-time manufacturing jobs have been disappearing.  Replaced by lower paying (often part-time) service jobs.  More females (including married women) are now working, and ins ome cases, moving into occupational positions traditionally held almost exclusively by males.  Technological changes – e.g., computers, cell phones, and email – have also had dramatic effect on how workplace is structured.  More people are now able to do some or all of their work at home, but at same time, lines between the workplace and private life are becoming blurred. UNEMPLOYMENT AND CRIME  Many theories of crime—e.g., anomie theory, relative deprivation theory – assume there is a relationship between unemployment and crime.  Researchers have found weak or even negative relationship between these two factors. TEENAGERS AND EMPLOYMENT  Evidence suggests that employed teenagers are more likely to be involved in crime than unemployed teenagers.  Away from home more often, have their own money, may have their transportation. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES  Routine activities/opportunity theorists suggest that weak or negative relationship between unemployment and crime caused by fact that unemployed people have less disposable income.  More likely to engage in leisure activities at home or within their own neighborhoods (avoiding offenders).  At home or close to they’re home, and thus able to protect their property from would-be offenders. HIGH RISK OCCUPATIONS  Police officers, prison guards, probation officers, nurses, mental health workers, and welfare workers at higher risk of being assaulted, because they come into repeated contact with high risk groups of offenders.  Bartenders, hospitality workers (e.g., waitresses) and recreation workers (e.g., at amusement parks) are also at increased risk, because they come into regular contact with large numbers of strangers.  Taxi-drivers and newspaper vendors are at increased risk of being robbed, because they usually have cash on them, and come into frequent contact with the public. LOW RISK OCCUPATIONS  Farmer, tech non-support. RISK FACTORS (PRECURSORS)  Dealing with a large number of people.  Handling cash money  Doing a lot of travelling.  Delivering goods or passengers. VIOLENCE IN THE WORKPLACE  Risk of violent victimization in workplace is lower than risk during leisure time activities.  Workplace still accounts for between 14% and 22% of all violent crime.  Many violent crimes (or transactions) committed by irate or impatient clients/customers.  Other violent crimes committed by irate colleagues, fellow employees or friends and family members of employees. THREATS AND HARASSMENT  Not all work-related crime is necessarily of of a violent nature.  Some workers are threatened or harassed by customers or co-workers, but may not be physically injured.  Some threatening or harassing behaviour in the workplace may meet definition of a crime – including sexual harassment and criminal harassment. THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY  21% of burglaries take place while victim is at work.  Some employees have their personal property stolen by co-workers while they’re in the workplace. REPORTING WORKPLACE CRIME  Victimization incidents in the workplace likely to go unreported.  Many employers have "in-house" methods for addressing such issues – e.g., private security forces, internal disciplinary procedures, and dismissal of troublesome employees. OCCUPATIONAL CRIME  Types of occupational crime  Workplace provides opportunities for both employers and employees  Work domain brings large numbers of people together in time and space WHITE COLLAR AND CORPORATE CRIME  Term "white collar crime" first coined  Term "corporate crime" came somewhat later, to distinguish between crimes committed THE PRECURSORS  Individuals (or groups of individuals)  Often have vast sums of money  Organizational framework may permit them  Easy access to money SPENDING MONEY  Misappropriation of funds,  Using company assets to purchase items  Misrepresenting corporation's financial situation HOW MUCH DOES IT COST?  White collar/corporate crime costs  1994 municipal bankruptcy in Orange County, California HOW TO GET RICH QUICK  Chief executives (while drawing $100 million each out of Enron corporation) deliberately misrepresented profit picture. DOING BUSINESS  One of the world's largest  Defrauded investors  Involved Arthur Anderson BACK IN THE GREAT WHITE NORTH  In 1990’s, Eron Mortgage Corp. guaranteed thousands of investors in  President and Vice President  Eron was paying interest and repaying the principal on older investments  Investors lost around $200 million THERE’S GOLD IN THEM THAR HILLS  Bre-X claimed it
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