CRIM 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Classical Conditioning, Determinism, Conduct Disorder

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Crim 101, tutorial week 4
*Nature vs. Nurture
Is human behavior “a product of nature or nurture?”
In the past, theoreticians adhered to one viewpoint or the other
NATURE
NURTURE
Early positive school
Durkheim; Chicago school
Behavior caused by genetic influences
Humans born without predispositions
Individuals had inherited predispositions
Environmental influences shape/modify
human behavior
Free will vs. Determinism
FREE WILL
DETERMINISM
Classical school
Positive school
Humans as rational, conscious actors
Humans as animals, with preconditioned
instincts
*Conditional free will
Rare that an effect can be attributed to a single cause
People choose courses of action (element of free will)
Choices are limited or bounded by “current circumstances or opportunities, learning
experiences, physiological abilities and genetic predispositions” (Fishbein, 1990)
The significances of biological influences
Anderson argues that criminologists should consider biological influences, as well as
psychological disorder ( e.g., psychopathy, anti-social personality conduct disorder) and
environmental factors ( poor parenting, child abuse)
Numerous studies over past 20 years on effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.
Genetic vs. learned behaviors
Genetic (innate) behaviors- governed entirely by genes
Learned behaviors- have genetic component, but strongly influenced by
environment/experiences
Innate behaviors
Genetically programmed behaviors
Also called fixed action patterns
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Document Summary

Is human behavior a product of nature or nurture? . In the past, theoreticians adhered to one viewpoint or the other. Rare that an effect can be attributed to a single cause. People choose courses of action (element of free will) Choices are limited or bounded by current circumstances or opportunities, learning experiences, physiological abilities and genetic predispositions (fishbein, 1990) Anderson argues that criminologists should consider biological influences, as well as psychological disorder ( e. g. , psychopathy, anti-social personality conduct disorder) and environmental factors ( poor parenting, child abuse) Numerous studies over past 20 years on effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. Genetic (innate) behaviors- governed entirely by genes. Learned behaviors- have genetic component, but strongly influenced by environment/experiences. All animals (including humans) have innate behaviors. Human baby will grip a finger automatically. Human babies smile automatically is presented with a smiling face. Makes them more attractive- parents more likely to nurture and protect them.

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