Class Notes (836,163)
Canada (509,672)
Criminology (2,192)
CRIM 101 (459)
Lecture 3

crim 101 week 3 lecture.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

RESEARCHING CRIMINAL EVENTS  Why dunnit and why? (And who cares, anyway?) *SEVERAL APPROACHES  Direct observation in natural settings ( ethnographic research)  Experimental observations  Police reports  Victimization surveys  Self-report surveys *DIRECT OBSERVATION  Not necessarily the most efficient manner to research crime  Also referred to as ethnographic research  Criminal events occur with relative infrequency  Criminals spend a lot of their time doing same things as non-criminals *THE SECRET LIVES OF CRIMINALS  Criminal behaviour tends to be secretive in nature  Criminals go out of their way to avoid observation or detection  If done successfully, ethnographic researchers may learn in depth info about criminal sub-cultures that are not usually amenable to investigation *EXPERIMENTING ON HUMANS  Issues of “informed consent” (if you tell the subjects what you’re going to do, they may refuse, or alter their behavior)  If you encourage subjects to break the law, you may be breaking the law yourself. *EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY  The milgram experiment *THE UCR AND THE GSS  Official crime rates usually based in the uniform crime report (UCR)  Criminologists also look at the general social survey (GSS) *SOME PROBLEMS WITH THE UCR  Many incidents of crime go undetected, or unreported, and consequently do not make it into the UCR  Some incidents that are reported may not show up in the UCR because police conclude they are unfounded. *THE DARK FIGURE OF RECORDING, ACT II, Scene 33  Wide variations in reporting practices across the country  Professionalism and degree of organization of particular police department may be a factor OTHER COMPLICATING FACTORS  The crime funnel  The central city phenomenon  Canada’s policy on collection of race-crime information THE CRIME FUNNEL  Describes attrition rate as reported crimes make their way through the criminal justice system  For most crimes known to the police, nobody gets arrested  Arrest usually does not lead to a trial or a guilty plea. 1. Actual level of crime 2. Detected crime 3. Reported crime 4. Arrests 5. Convictions 6. Non-custodial 7. Custodial THE CENTRAL CITY PHENOMENON  Crime rates reported in city centers may not accurately reflect the number of criminally- minded people who actually live there  Census Metropolitan Areas or CMAs often have a number of suburbs that are contiguous to-or connected with-the city itself  People from suburbs travel to city centre in search of excitement, entertainment, or the opportunity to commit crimes *FEDERAL INCARCERATION RATES PER 100,000  Aboriginals 185  Blacks 146  Whites 42  Asians 16 *ETHNICITY AND CRIME  Canada does not collect statistics on the relationships (if any) between race and crime  To the extent that we have reliable information, it is usually collected by correctional institutions, rather than by the police or the courts *THE GREAT DEBATE NO! (Julian Roberts):  Difficult to classify people in a multi-racial society  Police officers (the ones most likely to be making decisions about the race of a suspect) have no training or expertise in these matters  Information might result in discrimination against ethnic groups that appear to be over- represented in the statistics YES! (Thomas Gabor)  Why should academics, criminal justice personnel and political leaders determine what the public can and cannot know?  We live in a free society, where censorship is unacceptable  If some ethnic minorities are more involved in crime, shouldn’t the public have a right to know? *THE GLADUE DECISION  1999 decision by the Supreme Court of Canada, referred to as R. v. Gladue  Section 718.2 of Criminal Code makes it mandatory for sentencing judges to take into consideration unique circumstances of aboriginal offenders  Supreme Court confirmed this “is remedial in nature and is designed to ameliorate the serious problem of overrepresentation of aboriginal peoples in prisons”.  Decision encourages judges to take “a restorative approach” when sentencing aboriginals.  Court acknowledges that “the jail term for an Aboriginal offender may in some circumstances be less than the term imposed in a non-aboriginal offender for the same offence”. *THE GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY  Victimization survey that interviews people by telephone (random digit dialing)  In 2009, sampled 19,500 individuals over the age of 15, in households across canada  Respondents asked about their victimization experiences, and their perceptions of crime and the crimi
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.