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CRIM 101 (459)

Chapter 6.docx

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CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

Chapter 6:Opportunities, Lifestyles and Situations 1  1960s and 1970s began to move they study of crime victims to –sacco and kennedy  Why some of the people are more likely to be victimized? Victimization opportunity Victim-offender interaction  Lifestyle-exposure Theory - 1978 - Michael Hindelang, Michael Gottfredson, James Garofalo  Personal victimization are relatively high for young minority males because they tend to associate with people who are likely to offend Aka- young minority are more likely to offend  Elderly females are likely to associate with other elder females and to avoid high risk settings  Routine Activities Theory: crime rate changes after WWII because more and more women entered or returned to the paid labour force or school. Also, vacations became longer and travel became cheaper, so = absence of capable guardianship  An increase in living standard also increase crime rate since there are more targets (TV, laptops…)  refined and modified the theory , proposed a “structural –choice model of victimization”  proximity and exposure  structural factors because they predispose people to differing level of risk  target and guardianship  choice components because they determine which targets are selected  hot spot  high-crime location (Lawrence Sherman)  small number of urban locations hosted relatively large amount s of crime  social disorganization affects levels of criminal opportunities  Kennedy and forde noted that certain environments may be more likely than others to encourage routine act of violence ( bars and sporting events) Because: individuals learn how to act when confront by the actions of others  People who engaged in offending behavior face an increased risk of criminal victimization Because: they tend to
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